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Featured Publications

Featured Publications Description.

Relationship between Principal’s Instructional Supervision and Teacher’s Performance at Secondary Level in Peshawar

Safi Ullah, Um-e-Kulsoom, Mamriz Khan

Abstract

It is an established fact that the teachers are the catalysts for improving the quality of the teaching-learning process. This research is aimed at understanding the perception of teachers on the contribution of principal’s instructional supervision towards the performance of teachers. The principal is supposed to procure teaching materials to the schools for teachers to work with in order to improve classroom instruction. Principals may always be ready to assist the teachers and interact with them in a cordial manner. This study is aimed to explore the “Relationship between Principal’s Instructional Supervision and its Influence on Teacher's Performance at Secondary School Level in Peshawar”. For this purpose data was collected from 25 girls’ high & higher secondary schools. Eight teachers from each school were randomly selected, thus 200 teachers constituted the sample for the study. A questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondent teachers. The reliability test of the test items was carried out. The questionnaire was administered among 20 teachers other than the sample. Cronbach’s Alpha was carried out that has yielded results within the acceptable range. Data analysis was carried out by using statistical tools such as Descriptive Statistics, One-Sample t-test, Pearson Correlation-test, and Regression Analysis. The management may provide latest instructional technology to the educational institution for effective teaching-learning process. Finally, recommendations were put forward that could facilitate other researchers to carry out their research on the use of instructional technology at secondary school level.

Published in IOARP Journal of Innovations in Teaching, Learning, and Assessment

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Classroom Disruptions: Causes, Effects, and Strategies for Tackling Disruptive Behaviour

Aaqil Al Rashid, Safwa Al Jafri, Iyaad Al Molla

Abstract

Classroom settings and disruptive behaviour are critical topics in society today because of the growing concerns of bullying related suicides, enhancement of electronic and social media use, and mental health and cultural issues. While disruptive behaviour may seem insignificant for some, many times there are serious underlying issues that need to be addressed. In this paper we will discuss different types of disruptive behaviours in the classroom setting and explore key reasons behind such behaviours.

Published in IOARP Journal of Innovations in Teaching, Learning, and Assessment

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Strategies to Teach Child with Dyslexia in Classroom

Jin Mao, Colin Turcotte, Arjun Brar

Abstract

In this paper we aim at discussing various strategies adopted by teachers in order to help child with dyslexia cope up with class. The time spent in attaining the education plays a significant part of child’s development. For a teacher, aiding a dyslexic child is a wonderful as well as challenging task. Dyslexic students have learning differences due to which they can’t hold information for long and may not be able to grasp the information at all. It is important to understand that dyslexic learner neither lacks in intelligence nor willfulness, only constant support provided by mentors can help them in learning. However, with the guidance of professional tutors, well equipped and tested strategies- students are able to learn and achieve a lot.

Published in IOARP Journal of Innovations in Teaching, Learning, and Assessment

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On the Importance of Communicating Behaviour Expectations in the First Session of a Class

Muhammad Adeel

Abstract

Classroom management has a critical impact on effective teaching and learning. Classroom disruptions are the pattern of repeated behaviour that significantly interrupts the teaching and learning process. It, therefore, becomes vital to handle these disruptions and the ability of a teacher to handle classroom discipline is given key priority in observation of teaching and learning conducted by the regulators. In this paper, we will focus on evaluating the importance of communicating behaviour expectations to the students in the very first session and its impact on effective teaching and learning. The analysis is based on the review of the literature, interviews, and a survey questionnaire completed by the teachers.

Published in IOARP Journal of Innovations in Teaching, Learning, and Assessment

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Technical Evaluation of the Functionality of Popular Mobile Payment Protocols 

Munir Hussain, Syed Usman Jamil

Abstract

Today, mobile commerce flexibility has totally changed businesses in the world due to easy mobile-based online bookings and payments. Its implementation is not limited to any single area but it can be utilized in all sorts of situations and organizations in various ways. It can be utilized in banking, electronic publication distribution, online sales, online payments for different utility bills and online booking of airlines etc. These kinds of online booking, buying and selling, and their payment services are available to anyone 24/7 in the world. When using these types of facilities, one needs to understand and study different types of characteristics of this new technology i.e., it is important to understand different modes of payments, various technologies using mobile payment system, and different M-commerce payment protocols. As we know that energy consumption is a critical issue in M-commerce, so it is important to reduce battery power consumption as much as possible. In this paper, we will explore some of the most popular mobile payment protocols step-by-step to fully understand their working environment.  

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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Ad-hoc and Opportunistic Routing in Dynamic Scatternet Environment 

S K A Khan, M Adeel, M A Azam

Abstract

In reality, mobile ad-hoc networks are highly unpredictable because any node can join or leave the network at any time, thus making reliable and effective communication a problem. This issue is addressed by introducing new breed of ad-hoc networking, known as opportunistic networks. Opportunistic networking is a concept that has evolved from mobile ad-hoc networking. In opportunistic networks nodes have no prior knowledge of routes to intended destinations. Any node in the network can be used as potential forwarder with the exception of taking information one step closer to intended destination. The forwarding decision is based on the information gathered from the source node or encountering node. The opportunistic forwarding can only be achieved if message forwarding is carried out in store and forward fashion. Although, opportunistic networks are more flexible than traditional MANETs, however, due to little insight of network, it poses distinct challenges such as intermittent connectivity, variable delays, short connection duration and dynamic topology. Addressing these challenges in opportunistic network is the basis for developing new and efficient protocols for information sharing. This paper presents a conceptual study for opportunistic networks to improve the overall message delivery at destinations while keeping the communication cost very low. Some assumptions are considered to improved directivity of message flow towards intended destinations. These assumptions exploit human social relationships analogies such as popularity and use of hybrid communication by applying opportunistic concepts on top of traditional ad-hoc routing such as AODV to gain maximum message directivity. The experiment results have shown that by combining traditional ad-hoc routing with opportunistic forwarding has not only improved directivity but as a result have achieved a great improvement in message delivery to intended destinations.

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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A Hybrid Model for Usability of Mobile Applications

Rabia Afzal Minhas, Khola Rafique, Ali Javed, Muhammad Awais Azam

Abstract

The success of mobile applications depends upon its usability. Of all the non-functional requirements, usability dimension is the foremost requirement for mobile applications. Usability of mobile applications should be high so that users can interact with them easily. There have been many models proposed that help developers for making mobile applications more usable. But they did not address all of the issues. In our paper, we propose a framework which is hybrid of multiple models like ISO, Moe, Voelle, Nielsen Zhang and Pacmad. In this paper, we also introduce a novel feature “Waste-app” for efficient utilization of memory. It automatically cleans up cache and the apps which are in use for a long time. Proposed methodology shows that inclusion of this new feature and the new hybrid model gives better results in usability aspects.

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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Lateness and Absenteeism in Observed Classes: A Reflection on Practice

Asghar Hussain, Muhammad Adeel

Abstract

This paper focuses on the issues of creativity in teaching, motivation, and the ways in which various strategies can be implemented to promote inclusive teaching practice. Furthermore, through the use of these strategies, and, a selection of relevant learning theories, we will attempt to come to logical and reasoned conclusions on how best to tackle the critical incidents presented in this case study.

Published in IOARP Journal of Innovations in Teaching, Learning, and Assessment

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Promoting School's Efficiency Through Academic and Non-Academic Outputs

Safi Ullah, Muhammad Yunas, Muhammad Iqbal, Hina Gul

Abstract

School’s outputs are graduates of the school who completed a given cycle of education in stipulated time. They have the requisite knowledge and skills induced by school. It may be in the form of different capacities created in students by schools such as competence in utilizing language, math, social and natural science and citizenship. Poor performance of output indicators may reflect various problems in programme design and implementation or adverse changes in external factors. Output indicators can be categorized into academic/cognitive and non-academic/non-cognitive. Academic/ cognitive outputs include learning skills, writing skills, knowledge of arithmetic, special knowledge of skills and specialization. In order to measure the cognitive outputs, the objectives of any particular age-group can be set, common curriculum can be devised and standardized tests can be formulated. Most parents expect that school will induce basic moral and ethical values in their wards as well as achievement in terminal examination. The school will also prepare students for their place in the wider society, not only in terms of cognitive skills but in social skills and interpersonal relationships, as well. Output indicators includes number of graduates at a particular level and their test scores; the information about dropout rate; completion rate, survival rate, examination pass rate, enhancing enrolment and minimizing dropout rate, increasing graduation rate are related to the efficiency of schools.

Published in IOARP Journal of Innovations in Teaching, Learning, and Assessment

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ICN Framework and Its Challenges for IOT Applications

Syed Usman Jamil, Khalid Khan

Abstract

The early internet user needs were coped by current internet architecture that was based on host-centric communication model. Now a day, usage as well as requirements of internet is changed however mostly internet users are interested to access large amount of data/information regardless of physical location.  This paradigm changes in the internet usage model along with mobility support, better security and pressing needs of users has invited researchers to consider radical changes in the internet architecture. By following this direction, we have reviewed many on-going efforts of researchers in which the future internet can be developed on the foundation of Information- Centric Networking. To sync billions of objects over the internet is promised by the internet of things (IOT). To deploy numerous individual IOT architectures, in domains of diverse nature, the ongoing trend is to deploy a common IOT platform, so that objects may be accessible and synchronized with applications across domains and organizations. To achieve this goal, limited proposals are developed to model unified host centric IOT infrastructure operate at upper layer of current host centric internet. Therefore, fundamental mismatch is evident in between the today’s host centric nature of internet and IOT system having information centric nature. We propose to develop common set of services and protocols to resolve this mismatch, which form a platform for IOT, on the basis of ICN paradigm, which may be named as ICN-IOT platform.  ICN-IOT merger is the ICN salient feature and therefore enables seamless scalability, mobility support and efficient service and content delivery. The main aim of these investigations is to find out the core functionalities of ICN architectures, overview of IOT functionalities and architectural requirements, and the review of ICN over IOT implementations and their advantages and challenges to sketch out the key unresolved challenges in this field of networking research.

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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Evaluation of the MPeersim – A Simulation Environment for Mobile Networks

M Adeel, L N Tokarchuk, M A Azam, S K A Khan

Abstract

MPeersim is a simulation environment for mobile and mobile P2P networks. It simulates different types of mobile nodes and communication technologies such as Bluetooth, MMS, and SMS. With a primary emphasis of evaluation of MPeersim in terms of simulation statistics, this paper will elaborate on various MPeersim functionalities in context of availability of generic, node, and network-specific simulation parameters, node and network-specific statistics available for various types of analyses, and on the capabilities of MPeersim in terms of presenting empirical data in different formats including graphs and visualisations for monitoring purposes. Providing a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between parameters and statistics will assist researchers in planning for developing simulation environments.

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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Internal and External Analysis of a UK Retailer and Identification of Variables for Assessment

Braydon Guascoine, Surintan Binti

Abstract

Before devising a strategy, it is requisite to perform the internal and external analysis of the company to better understand its market position. This paper aims to provide a detailed assessment of the UK retailer Sainsbury’s through PEST analysis, Porter’s Five Force model, SWOT analysis, 7S model and a brief financial position analysis. The research will not only help identify the current position and future opportunities for Sainsbury’s but will also help identify the variables through which other UK retailers could be assessed in future.

Published in IOARP Journal of Management and Leadership

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Efficient Market Hypothesis: An Evaluation of the Efficiency of Indian Capital Markets

Bernd Sanger, Emine Beyza Arikan, Mehul Mehta, Asma Hosseini

Abstract

Market efficiency refers to the accuracy and quickness with which prices reflect market related information. Decisions of investment by an investor in a market is influenced by many factors, one of the most important is the market efficiency. Research reveals that if a market is efficient, it is extremely difficult to make excessive returns. In an efficient market there exist next to none undervalued securities. With the first stock exchange started functioning in 1875 Indian stock markets have been lucrative for the traders from around the world. This paper attempts to analyse the efficiency of the Indian capital markets. Research from the literature and the interviews of the renowned investors have been used to reach a conclusion. Some tips in context of investment strategy have also been provided.

Published in IOARP Journal of Management and Leadership

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The Taxonomy of Behavioural Parameters on Mobile Devices

M Adeel, L N Tokarchuk, M A Azam, S K A Khan

Abstract

Mobile malware has emerged as one of the major threats for modern-day mobile networks. Since the first inception a decade ago, hundreds of types of mobile malware and their variants have been discovered. Interactions between mobile using technologies like Bluetooth, MMS, SMS, and mobile and home broadband, leave significant usage footprints on mobile devices. If acquired and processed, these footprints can be utilised for a variety of purposes including the detection of mobile malware. This work is aimed at introducing various behaviour parameters against which the footprints can be recorded, and the processing of these parameters to produce high-order parameters that can prove very effective in different types of device and network-specific analysis including detection of malware. It is important to state that this work is limited to presenting a comprehensive taxonomy of behaviour parameters only, and a discussion on the mechanism of utilising the behaviour parameters in analysis such as detection of malware is beyond the scope of this work.

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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Analysis of Efficient Market Hypothesis and Behavioral Finance

Emine Beyza Arikan, Bernd Sanger, Mehul Mehta

Abstract

The efficient market hypothesis suggests that at any given time in a capital market, the prices of stock reflect all available information. Hypothesis implies that it is impossible to beat the market because the market price always incorporates all the relevant information that may influence the price of a stock. Some researchers, based on the historic evidence, contradict with this hypothesis and challenge the presence of a perfect rationale behind the hypothesis. Behavioural finance on the other hand combines behavioural and cognitive psychological theory with economics and finance to provide explanations behind the irrational financial decisions investors make. Using these theories, behavioural finance explains stock market anomalies such as severe rises or falls in stock price. Behavioural finance assumes that both information structure and the characteristics of market investors influence investment decision of the individuals. This paper provides a thorough analysis of efficient market hypothesis and behavioural finance by taking into account the literature and market statistics.

Published in IOARP Journal of Management and Leadership

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Creating Brands for Airline Industry – Marketing Planning to Launch a Commercial Helicopter Service

Adnan Ashraf, Yousaf Raheel, Muhammad Adeel, Asghar Hussain

Abstract

Over the years, tourism industry has remained a key player in Pakistani economy. It has although seen its worst downfall in history due to the incidents of terrorism in the past 15 years, in the recent years, this industry is on the rise/booming again. Airline industry has played a key role in connecting far-flung tourist heavens of Pakistan to the mainland. After researching the Pakistani airline industry, this work provides a preliminary marketing plan for a proposed commercial helicopter service for a leading airline in Pakistan. The paper includes a comprehensive internal and external analysis of the airline to assess the feasibility of the proposed service. Besides providing a situation analysis, this paper also includes a detailed 4 Ps analysis, and an evaluation of value addition for the consumer in the proposed marketing strategy.

Published in IOARP Journal of Management and Leadership

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Impact of Leadership Style of Academic Administrators on Institutional Performance: A South Asian State University Case Study

M A Khalil, Y Raheel

Abstract

Existing research has focused on impact of leadership styles adopted by the academic administrators of the universities on factors such as faculty or student satisfaction.  These factors although have an indirect impact on the institutional performance in a state university system of developing countries, there is a growing need to study the correlation between leadership styles and institutional performance through quantitative indicators. 
Lack of performance regulatory mechanisms in higher education system in developing countries result in difficulties in performance evaluation based on standard performance indicators utilized for this purpose in developed countries. Based on the analysis of literature pertaining to evaluation of institutional performance, this paper identifies ever so important quantitative indicators for performance evaluation of the state universities in South Asia. 
Identifying the leadership style adopted by the academic administrators has always been an area of interest for the researchers as it affects institutions in different aspects. This paper identifies the leadership style of 4 academic administrators of the state university under discussion who have served the organisation in this role during the past 12 years though a survey using Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. After identifying the leadership styles of the administrators and selecting the quantitative parameters for performance evaluation, a correlation between the leadership style and institutional performance is investigated. This paper also provides a comparison of the performance of academic administrators with varying leadership styles on selected performance indicators.  

Published in Proceedings of the IOARP International Conference on Management, Leadership, and Entrepreneurship

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Leadership Styles and their Impact on Faculty Job Satisfaction: Case Study of a Public Sector University in South Asia

Yousaf Raheel, Muhammad Arshad Khalil, Mohammad Amer Shahzad

Abstract

Research to-date has focused mainly on the impact of leadership styles of academic administrators of primary and secondary education institutions on faculty job satisfaction. There was however a growing need to investigate the correlation between leadership styles of academic administrators of higher education institutions i.e. universities particularly the public sector universities in South Asia on job satisfaction of faculty.
Through use of Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, this paper identifies the leadership styles of several academic administrators of the public sector university in question who have served on this role during past 12 years. An assessment of faculty job satisfaction was performed through Job Satisfaction Survey whereas a correlation between various styles of leadership adopted by the academic administrators of the university in question and their impact on faculty job satisfaction has been studied.

Published in Proceedings of the IOARP International Conference on Management, Leadership, and Entrepreneurship

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Smart Cities: Challenges and Beyond

Muhammad Hassan Raza, Munam Ali Shah, Muhammad Kamran Abbasi

Abstract

A smart city is an interconnection of objects in which each object plays a role of a source node. The data and information is collected from the source node for further computation and communication. A city can only be called a smart city if certain attributes are available such as clean water, good transport, energy efficiency, well-structured infrastructure, Internet of Things (IoT), mobile health (m-health), and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). In this paper, we provide a comprehensive overview of the things that form a smart city. We focus on applications and technologies and identify different challenges in a smart city. Furthermore, the critical evaluation of different standards, architectures and frameworks form part of the paper. 

Published in Proceedings of the IOARP International Conference on Communication and Networks

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Social Aspectsof 3G/4G Cellular Network Deployment in Pakistan

Sardar Aadilur Rehman, Munam Ali Shah, Sijing Zhang

Abstract

The smartphone looks the most appropriate communications technology in today's global world. Through this, people can connect to other people for different purposes, e.g., business, commerce, social networking and education etc. The success story of 2nd Generation of wireless mobile communication has been tremendous in Pakistan. The recently launched 3G and 4G cellular technologies in the country offer higher data rates and more connectivity options. In this paper, our contribution is two-fold. Firstly, we investigate the social impacts of 3G/4G cellular networks in Pakistan. Secondly, we conduct a survey about the appropriateness of the technology in the country from social aspects. The survey reveals some interesting results which could be used by service providers and policy makers to make the 3G/4G experience more beneficial. 

Published in Proceedings of the IOARP International Conference on Communication and Networks

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