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Recent Publications

Recept Publications Description.

Consumer Marketing Engagement and Segment Multimedia Strategy for Launching a Beverage Product in Pakistan

Adnan Ashraf, Yousaf Raheel, Muhammad Adeel, Asghar Hussain

Abstract

Soft drinks market is the third largest revenue participant of Central Board of Revenue in terms of sales tax and excise duties. Pakistani beverage market has been growing since its inception. With several local and international companies interested in this lucrative business, this paper attempts to provide a much sought-after insight into various aspects of Pakistani consumer market by providing a consumer engagement and segment multimedia strategy for a future beverage product as a case study. The theories on consumer engagement and their application in perspective of Pakistani society, and a detailed analysis of considerable factors in consumer engagement in context of segment multimedia strategy are the highlights of this work. Although focused on Pakistani market, this case study is perfectly applicable in context of other Asian and African countries with similar socio-culture environment.

Published in IOARP Journal of Management and Leadership

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Relationship between Principal’s Instructional Supervision and Teacher’s Performance at Secondary Level in Peshawar

Safi Ullah, Um-e-Kulsoom, Mamriz Khan

Abstract

It is an established fact that the teachers are the catalysts for improving the quality of the teaching-learning process. This research is aimed at understanding the perception of teachers on the contribution of principal’s instructional supervision towards the performance of teachers. The principal is supposed to procure teaching materials to the schools for teachers to work with in order to improve classroom instruction. Principals may always be ready to assist the teachers and interact with them in a cordial manner. This study is aimed to explore the “Relationship between Principal’s Instructional Supervision and its Influence on Teacher's Performance at Secondary School Level in Peshawar”. For this purpose data was collected from 25 girls’ high & higher secondary schools. Eight teachers from each school were randomly selected, thus 200 teachers constituted the sample for the study. A questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondent teachers. The reliability test of the test items was carried out. The questionnaire was administered among 20 teachers other than the sample. Cronbach’s Alpha was carried out that has yielded results within the acceptable range. Data analysis was carried out by using statistical tools such as Descriptive Statistics, One-Sample t-test, Pearson Correlation-test, and Regression Analysis. The management may provide latest instructional technology to the educational institution for effective teaching-learning process. Finally, recommendations were put forward that could facilitate other researchers to carry out their research on the use of instructional technology at secondary school level.

Published in IOARP Journal of Innovations in Teaching, Learning, and Assessment

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On the Importance of Communicating Behaviour Expectations in the First Session of a Class

Muhammad Adeel

Abstract

Classroom management has a critical impact on effective teaching and learning. Classroom disruptions are the pattern of repeated behaviour that significantly interrupts the teaching and learning process. It, therefore, becomes vital to handle these disruptions and the ability of a teacher to handle classroom discipline is given key priority in observation of teaching and learning conducted by the regulators. In this paper, we will focus on evaluating the importance of communicating behaviour expectations to the students in the very first session and its impact on effective teaching and learning. The analysis is based on the review of the literature, interviews, and a survey questionnaire completed by the teachers.

Published in IOARP Journal of Innovations in Teaching, Learning, and Assessment

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Analysis of Critical Aspects of M-commerce and Mobile Payment Systems 

Munir Hussain

Abstract

The fast spreading of wireless technology services are more focusing on businesses area rather than targeting customers. Even now, this advancement in the mobile technology continues to bang the international business market intensely, modern mobile technologies and their applications are more focusing the mobile business area. Today, the world of electronic transactions is switching from E-commerce to M-commerce. In order to solve critical issues in M-commerce it becomes vital to understand different concepts and technologies associated with M-commerce. The first part of this paper gives overview of M-commerce in terms of their characteristics, applications, and issues pertaining to it, including many critical issue such battery power consumption in M-commerce transactions. Battery is one of the most important and scarce resources in mobile devices thus to extend the mobile devices battery lifetime, it becomes important to save the battery resource as much as possible. The second part of this paper focuses on exploring various aspects of enabling mobile payment systems, mobile payment modes and characteristics and the payments system requirements.

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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Technical Evaluation of the Functionality of Popular Mobile Payment Protocols 

Munir Hussain, Syed Usman Jamil

Abstract

Today, mobile commerce flexibility has totally changed businesses in the world due to easy mobile-based online bookings and payments. Its implementation is not limited to any single area but it can be utilized in all sorts of situations and organizations in various ways. It can be utilized in banking, electronic publication distribution, online sales, online payments for different utility bills and online booking of airlines etc. These kinds of online booking, buying and selling, and their payment services are available to anyone 24/7 in the world. When using these types of facilities, one needs to understand and study different types of characteristics of this new technology i.e., it is important to understand different modes of payments, various technologies using mobile payment system, and different M-commerce payment protocols. As we know that energy consumption is a critical issue in M-commerce, so it is important to reduce battery power consumption as much as possible. In this paper, we will explore some of the most popular mobile payment protocols step-by-step to fully understand their working environment.  

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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Development of a Management Information System for UK Cash & Carry Business

Michael James Wood

Abstract

This paper discusses the management and development of information systems in a small to medium sized cash and carry organization based in the United Kingdom. The paper discusses development for IT requirements, maintenance and the Input/outputs of operations for employees working in data processing or an IT department. Social and ethical issues are also discussed as well as how data base management systems can be useful to produce reports for middle to higher management.

Published in IOARP Journal of Management and Leadership

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Strategic Planning: Analysis of the Past, Present, and Future Strategies of the Vodafone

Bernd Sanger, Emine Beyza Arikan, Asma Hosseini

Abstract

This paper provides an evaluation of the past, present, and future strategic plans of Vodafone. To design any strategy for future, it is imperative to analyse the important parts of strategic plans of the company in the past. Thus in this work, we provides a detailed analysis of Vodafone’s strategic plan from the past decade. Similarly, to identify the aspects of strategic importance for Vodafone in the present times, this work provides an overview of the key components of the current strategic plan of Vodafone. Finally, based on the study of the past and present strategies, and critical variables affecting telecom industry in general and Vodafone in particular, this work proposes some critical components of any future strategic plan for Vodafone. Based on the analysis as part of this work, we also propose various improvements to the value chain of Vodafone.

Published in IOARP Journal of Management and Leadership

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Lateness and Absenteeism in Observed Classes: A Reflection on Practice

Asghar Hussain, Muhammad Adeel

Abstract

This paper focuses on the issues of creativity in teaching, motivation, and the ways in which various strategies can be implemented to promote inclusive teaching practice. Furthermore, through the use of these strategies, and, a selection of relevant learning theories, we will attempt to come to logical and reasoned conclusions on how best to tackle the critical incidents presented in this case study.

Published in IOARP Journal of Innovations in Teaching, Learning, and Assessment

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Strategies to Teach Child with Dyslexia in Classroom

Jin Mao, Colin Turcotte, Arjun Brar

Abstract

In this paper we aim at discussing various strategies adopted by teachers in order to help child with dyslexia cope up with class. The time spent in attaining the education plays a significant part of child’s development. For a teacher, aiding a dyslexic child is a wonderful as well as challenging task. Dyslexic students have learning differences due to which they can’t hold information for long and may not be able to grasp the information at all. It is important to understand that dyslexic learner neither lacks in intelligence nor willfulness, only constant support provided by mentors can help them in learning. However, with the guidance of professional tutors, well equipped and tested strategies- students are able to learn and achieve a lot.

Published in IOARP Journal of Innovations in Teaching, Learning, and Assessment

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A Hybrid Model for Usability of Mobile Applications

Rabia Afzal Minhas, Khola Rafique, Ali Javed, Muhammad Awais Azam

Abstract

The success of mobile applications depends upon its usability. Of all the non-functional requirements, usability dimension is the foremost requirement for mobile applications. Usability of mobile applications should be high so that users can interact with them easily. There have been many models proposed that help developers for making mobile applications more usable. But they did not address all of the issues. In our paper, we propose a framework which is hybrid of multiple models like ISO, Moe, Voelle, Nielsen Zhang and Pacmad. In this paper, we also introduce a novel feature “Waste-app” for efficient utilization of memory. It automatically cleans up cache and the apps which are in use for a long time. Proposed methodology shows that inclusion of this new feature and the new hybrid model gives better results in usability aspects.

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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Examination of Main Fruit and Vegetables Market in Multan District of Pakistan

Muhammad Hamza, Manan Aslam, Bakhatawar Sharif , Sami Ullah, Arqam Iqbal, M.Ali Imran

Abstract

In this paper we will examine various market practices and operations that are being performed in the fruits and vegetables markets in Multan. Improving the agricultural marketing system is the key to the development of Pakistan agrarian economy. The legal framework for agricultural marketing system in Pakistan has developed over time. The Agriculture Produce Markets Act, 1939 was promulgated on the recommendations of Royal Commission on Agriculture, constituted by the British Indian Government with the objective to regulate agribusiness and to do away the evils and vices inherent in the agricultural marketing system. Market Committees were established under the provisions of this act and assigned the task of safeguarding interests of growers. After independence, the same act was implemented in Pakistan. All agricultural marketing activities (especially the working of wholesale markets) in the province of Punjab are legally controlled under this ordinance. 244 agricultural markets along with 81 feeder markets handle food grains, fruits and vegetables in Punjab. Punjab Agricultural Marketing Company has been established by the Government of Punjab under the Public-Private initiative to energize agribusiness and marketing in Punjab. The major areas of interest of this organization include development of integrated cold storage chains, enhancing and improving processing and marketing of agricultural commodities. In Punjab for instance, agricultural marketing was managed by the Directorate of Economics and Marketing, working under the Department of Agricultural Marketing.

Published in IOARP Journal of Management and Leadership

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Information System Proposal for Middle and Senior Management: A UK Retailer Case Study

Daniel Jones

Abstract

The paper analyses the significant elements of information technology in the supermarket chain Tesco. The overall purpose of information systems in an organisation will be identified and explained. In the paper, it talks about how Tesco revolutionises the supermarket sector with innovative ideas to stay ahead of the competition. Tesco innovates on current systems and makes them personal to the company. The paper highlights the role of information systems to keep Tesco working efficiently and effectively. They are the key to automating manual processes to aid productivity, development and enable real-time data to make decisions — Tesco uses systems such as a software package called ‘GOLD’ to maintain a competitive advantage. As the leader of the supermarket sector, the business must continue to innovate ideas to remain competitive. Network systems that are associated with Tesco are analysed to highlight the importance of communication between all the stores, depots and head office. Tesco has a system that is centralised and consolidated into a single infrastructure.

Published in IOARP Journal of Management and Leadership

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Classroom Disruptions: Causes, Effects, and Strategies for Tackling Disruptive Behaviour

Aaqil Al Rashid, Safwa Al Jafri, Iyaad Al Molla

Abstract

Classroom settings and disruptive behaviour are critical topics in society today because of the growing concerns of bullying related suicides, enhancement of electronic and social media use, and mental health and cultural issues. While disruptive behaviour may seem insignificant for some, many times there are serious underlying issues that need to be addressed. In this paper we will discuss different types of disruptive behaviours in the classroom setting and explore key reasons behind such behaviours.

Published in IOARP Journal of Innovations in Teaching, Learning, and Assessment

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Ad-hoc and Opportunistic Routing in Dynamic Scatternet Environment 

S K A Khan, M Adeel, M A Azam

Abstract

In reality, mobile ad-hoc networks are highly unpredictable because any node can join or leave the network at any time, thus making reliable and effective communication a problem. This issue is addressed by introducing new breed of ad-hoc networking, known as opportunistic networks. Opportunistic networking is a concept that has evolved from mobile ad-hoc networking. In opportunistic networks nodes have no prior knowledge of routes to intended destinations. Any node in the network can be used as potential forwarder with the exception of taking information one step closer to intended destination. The forwarding decision is based on the information gathered from the source node or encountering node. The opportunistic forwarding can only be achieved if message forwarding is carried out in store and forward fashion. Although, opportunistic networks are more flexible than traditional MANETs, however, due to little insight of network, it poses distinct challenges such as intermittent connectivity, variable delays, short connection duration and dynamic topology. Addressing these challenges in opportunistic network is the basis for developing new and efficient protocols for information sharing. This paper presents a conceptual study for opportunistic networks to improve the overall message delivery at destinations while keeping the communication cost very low. Some assumptions are considered to improved directivity of message flow towards intended destinations. These assumptions exploit human social relationships analogies such as popularity and use of hybrid communication by applying opportunistic concepts on top of traditional ad-hoc routing such as AODV to gain maximum message directivity. The experiment results have shown that by combining traditional ad-hoc routing with opportunistic forwarding has not only improved directivity but as a result have achieved a great improvement in message delivery to intended destinations.

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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Evaluation of Design, Monitoring and Security of the Communication Network of a UK Based SME

Daniel Jones

Abstract

Using a UK based SME as a case study, this work provides an evaluation of the network design, monitoring tool, and the security tools utilized. A logical and physical network design highlights/signifies how the best practices in network deployment could be used to deploy a secure and efficient communication network for the SMEs. A quality communication network relies highly on the choice of network devices; thus, this work also provides a comparison of various networking devices in different categories. The paper also discusses various aspects of monitoring the SME’s network. The work highlights the critical parameters that need tracking to gauge network performance. Various network monitoring tools have been identified and discussed in depth. The last section of the paper discusses security in the context of SME’s network. Theoretical aspects of security, identification of various threats posed to the SME and the logical and physical countermeasures have been covered.

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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Dynamics of Marketed Surplus of Major Vegetables in Multan, Pakistan

Manan Aslam, Muhammad Ahsin Ayub, Mudassar Yasin, Qumer Iqbal, Bilal Atta

Abstract

Vegetable production is concentrated in peri-urban areas as related to the rural production areas because of increasing people preferences towards the ingestion of fresh vegetables and nutritious diet. Vegetables are good source of proteins, minerals and vitamins, which are essential for human health. Agricultural commercialization provides different opportunities for better income and sustainable livelihood for farmers having small land holdings. Nearly 63 different kinds of vegetables are grown in all provinces of Pakistan, but potatoes, cauliflower, brinjal, onions and tomatoes are frequently grown vegetables. These are vended by traditional marketing e.g. through farmer, wholesaler, pharia and retailer to consumers. In this perspective, this study was designed to explore marketing systems of three selected kharif vegetables including, ladyfinger, bitter gourd and brinjal. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to draw a sample of 45 farmers. Questionnaires were developed and pretested to collect data from selected respondents. A regression model was estimated to analyze effect of major factors, affecting marketed surplus of vegetables. The results showed that peri- urban farmers sold high proportions of their vegetables. Better prices and market information are the main incentives for increased sales of the vegetables.

Published in IOARP Journal of Management and Leadership

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Developing a Marketing Plan to Introduce Hair & Beauty Products

Yousaf Raheel

Abstract

This paper provides a marketing plan for a proposed Head & Shoulders Olive Oil Extracts shampoo brand. Internal and external market analysis has been provided using SWOT, PESTEL, and Porter 5 Force Model. A thorough marketing strategy has been provided though 4 Ps Marketing Mix model along with a detailed assessment of value to consumers as a consequence of the marketing strategy.

Published in IOARP Journal of Management and Leadership

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Promoting School's Efficiency Through Academic and Non-Academic Outputs

Safi Ullah, Muhammad Yunas, Muhammad Iqbal, Hina Gul

Abstract

School’s outputs are graduates of the school who completed a given cycle of education in stipulated time. They have the requisite knowledge and skills induced by school. It may be in the form of different capacities created in students by schools such as competence in utilizing language, math, social and natural science and citizenship. Poor performance of output indicators may reflect various problems in programme design and implementation or adverse changes in external factors. Output indicators can be categorized into academic/cognitive and non-academic/non-cognitive. Academic/ cognitive outputs include learning skills, writing skills, knowledge of arithmetic, special knowledge of skills and specialization. In order to measure the cognitive outputs, the objectives of any particular age-group can be set, common curriculum can be devised and standardized tests can be formulated. Most parents expect that school will induce basic moral and ethical values in their wards as well as achievement in terminal examination. The school will also prepare students for their place in the wider society, not only in terms of cognitive skills but in social skills and interpersonal relationships, as well. Output indicators includes number of graduates at a particular level and their test scores; the information about dropout rate; completion rate, survival rate, examination pass rate, enhancing enrolment and minimizing dropout rate, increasing graduation rate are related to the efficiency of schools.

Published in IOARP Journal of Innovations in Teaching, Learning, and Assessment

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Evaluation of Energy Efficiency of Popular Mobile Payment Protocols

Munir Hussain, Syed Usman Jamil

Abstract

Over the last few years, the popularity of both electronic and mobile commerce (M-Commerce) has increased due to advancement in the Information Technology (IT). Evaluation of E-commerce and M-commerce protocols has always remained a subject of sustained effort to find an optimal solution. Mobile devices are resource constrained in terms of memory, processing and battery power. There have been efforts in the past for evaluation of such protocols based on the issues like privacy, security and efficiency. In this paper special consideration however is given to the battery power and thus evaluates few well-known M-commerce payment protocols for their battery requirements in terms of energy cost and compares energy cost of these protocols to find the most optimal solution for mobile payment.  Initial objective of this paper finds out energy consumption for every individual entity involved in the most popular mobile payments protocols. After the earlier has been achieved, the second and the most fundamental objective of this work is to calculate the overall energy consumption and to analyze these selected protocols to find out the most energy efficient protocol. 

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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Study of Network Design Considerations for Small Businesses

Michael James Wood

Abstract

This paper investigates the logical and physical network design considerations for a small business.  Moreover, the paper investigates how a business facing data consistency issues may address the issue by implementing a network design solution and how networks can be monitored and protected from security threats. Part one of this paper investigates the networking solution and networking topologies. Part two discusses networking infrastructure such as the purchasing of necessary networking devices to centralize the businesses data communications and background and foreground services. Part three of this paper discusses various aspects of network and data communication monitoring using a networking tool provided by SolarWinds. The last section, part four investigates a security proposal for the businesses network and discusses data recovery, malware and authentication.

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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Evaluation of the MPeersim – A Simulation Environment for Mobile Networks

M Adeel, L N Tokarchuk, M A Azam, S K A Khan

Abstract

MPeersim is a simulation environment for mobile and mobile P2P networks. It simulates different types of mobile nodes and communication technologies such as Bluetooth, MMS, and SMS. With a primary emphasis of evaluation of MPeersim in terms of simulation statistics, this paper will elaborate on various MPeersim functionalities in context of availability of generic, node, and network-specific simulation parameters, node and network-specific statistics available for various types of analyses, and on the capabilities of MPeersim in terms of presenting empirical data in different formats including graphs and visualisations for monitoring purposes. Providing a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between parameters and statistics will assist researchers in planning for developing simulation environments.

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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Curriculum Development for Inclusive Education

Asghar Hussain

Abstract

Using a short revision course as a test case, this paper will look at the wider issues revolving around developing a curriculum; it will look closely at the process and praxis of the educational journey to attain the product with a deeper understanding of what is being studied. The paper will also discuss how the managing of product and process, amidst a lecturer/teacher’s knowledge of their students is increasingly important. In addition, recognizing the student’s objectives and pushing them to search out (with a certain degree of autonomy) their own objectives through reflection and contextualization of learning.

Published in IOARP Journal of Innovations in Teaching, Learning, and Assessment

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Strategic Management: Case Study of a UK Retailer

Xue T'ao, Nadhirah Zaimi, Jono Santoso

Abstract

Tesco is the third-largest retailer in the world measured by gross revenues and ninth-largest retailer in the world measured by revenues. This paper analyses the strategic management at Tesco in different dimensions. We attempt to study its business economics using objectives and mission statement, PESTEL analysis, and SWOT analysis. We analyse its strategy and processes by evaluation of the alignment of company’s direction with its vision statement, and through the use of balance scorecards and utilising game theory technique. We also explore the aspects of international expansion strategy of Tesco by evaluating various positional international markets and through employing PEST analysis.

Published in IOARP Journal of Management and Leadership

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ICN Framework and Its Challenges for IOT Applications

Syed Usman Jamil, Khalid Khan

Abstract

The early internet user needs were coped by current internet architecture that was based on host-centric communication model. Now a day, usage as well as requirements of internet is changed however mostly internet users are interested to access large amount of data/information regardless of physical location.  This paradigm changes in the internet usage model along with mobility support, better security and pressing needs of users has invited researchers to consider radical changes in the internet architecture. By following this direction, we have reviewed many on-going efforts of researchers in which the future internet can be developed on the foundation of Information- Centric Networking. To sync billions of objects over the internet is promised by the internet of things (IOT). To deploy numerous individual IOT architectures, in domains of diverse nature, the ongoing trend is to deploy a common IOT platform, so that objects may be accessible and synchronized with applications across domains and organizations. To achieve this goal, limited proposals are developed to model unified host centric IOT infrastructure operate at upper layer of current host centric internet. Therefore, fundamental mismatch is evident in between the today’s host centric nature of internet and IOT system having information centric nature. We propose to develop common set of services and protocols to resolve this mismatch, which form a platform for IOT, on the basis of ICN paradigm, which may be named as ICN-IOT platform.  ICN-IOT merger is the ICN salient feature and therefore enables seamless scalability, mobility support and efficient service and content delivery. The main aim of these investigations is to find out the core functionalities of ICN architectures, overview of IOT functionalities and architectural requirements, and the review of ICN over IOT implementations and their advantages and challenges to sketch out the key unresolved challenges in this field of networking research.

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN): Security and Authentication Methods

Munir Hussain

Abstract

The demand for WBAN has increased for last few years because it is useful network to monitor and improve various health conditions of human being. Information’s exchanges among different entities are very sensitive, so it is vital to keep this information’s secure from unauthorized access in order to avoid unpleasant incidents. Security and privacy are the most critical issues. Security is the important issue for any network and especially in WBANs its proper management is very crucial otherwise biomedical data collected by sensor nodes should be mixed with other user’s data. Also patients do not want their personal data to be misused and WBAN should provide the privacy to prevent eavesdropping. Mutual authentication is also a key challenge in WBAN and patients’ data originality and integrity are important for their treatment diagnosis etc. Development of the new mutual authentication schemes in healthcare applications without considering security makes patient privacy vulnerable. In this paper, we discuss communication technologies, possible attacks and recently most used popular authentication methods in WBANs.

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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