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Top - Downloads section combines the most popular scholarly articles from IOARP conferences and journals published in IOARP Digital Library. Besides providing an insight into publications other researchers are interested in, Top Downloads are also a reflection of the recent trends and directions in a particular research domain

If you are interested in Top Downloads of a particular conference or a journal, please visit the Top Downloads section on its respective website.

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5G Technology: An Overview of Applications, Prospects, Challenges and Beyond

Maryam Fizza, Munam Ali Shah

Abstract

This paper provides a comprehensive overview of an emerging mobile wireless communication technology, i.e., 5G. We provide a concise view of the advancements which are currently being investigated to deploy 5G wireless technology in an effective and beneficial way. We aim to provide an easy and state of the art view of architectures, applications and challenges of the 5G technology. We group existing approaches and provide a critical overview of the underlying details adapted by the 5G technology.

Published in Proceedings of the IOARP International Conference on Communication and Networks

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Smart Cities: Challenges and Beyond

Muhammad Hassan Raza, Munam Ali Shah, Muhammad Kamran Abbasi

Abstract

A smart city is an interconnection of objects in which each object plays a role of a source node. The data and information is collected from the source node for further computation and communication. A city can only be called a smart city if certain attributes are available such as clean water, good transport, energy efficiency, well-structured infrastructure, Internet of Things (IoT), mobile health (m-health), and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). In this paper, we provide a comprehensive overview of the things that form a smart city. We focus on applications and technologies and identify different challenges in a smart city. Furthermore, the critical evaluation of different standards, architectures and frameworks form part of the paper. 

Published in Proceedings of the IOARP International Conference on Communication and Networks

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Collecting Statistical Parameters on Mobile Phones for Detection of Security Attacks and Mobile Malware

M Adeel, L N Tokarchuk, M A Azam, S K A Khan

Abstract

Communication between mobiles using technologies like Bluetooth, MMS, SMS, Mobile and Home Broadband can increases their susceptibility to mobile security threats. In the past few years, mobile malware has emerged as one of the major threats for modern-day mobile devices. Since the first malware outbreak in 2004, hundreds of mobile viruses, worms, Trojans and spyware and over thousands of their variants have been discovered. With such a large number of ever-evolving malware, it is challenging to develop an electronic system capable of detecting such malware. In this work, the statistical data generated as a consequence of interactions on mobile devices and the mechanism of recording this data against statistical parameters on mobile devices is discussed. We also provide a detailed taxonomy of the low and high-order statistical parameters, and discuss how these parameters (besides utilisation in other scenarios) can be affectively utilised in the detection of a variety of security attacks and malware types.

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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Technical Evaluation of the Functionality of Popular Mobile Payment Protocols 

Munir Hussain, Syed Usman Jamil

Abstract

Today, mobile commerce flexibility has totally changed businesses in the world due to easy mobile-based online bookings and payments. Its implementation is not limited to any single area but it can be utilized in all sorts of situations and organizations in various ways. It can be utilized in banking, electronic publication distribution, online sales, online payments for different utility bills and online booking of airlines etc. These kinds of online booking, buying and selling, and their payment services are available to anyone 24/7 in the world. When using these types of facilities, one needs to understand and study different types of characteristics of this new technology i.e., it is important to understand different modes of payments, various technologies using mobile payment system, and different M-commerce payment protocols. As we know that energy consumption is a critical issue in M-commerce, so it is important to reduce battery power consumption as much as possible. In this paper, we will explore some of the most popular mobile payment protocols step-by-step to fully understand their working environment.  

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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Analysis of Efficient Market Hypothesis and Behavioral Finance

Emine Beyza Arikan, Bernd Sanger, Mehul Mehta

Abstract

The efficient market hypothesis suggests that at any given time in a capital market, the prices of stock reflect all available information. Hypothesis implies that it is impossible to beat the market because the market price always incorporates all the relevant information that may influence the price of a stock. Some researchers, based on the historic evidence, contradict with this hypothesis and challenge the presence of a perfect rationale behind the hypothesis. Behavioural finance on the other hand combines behavioural and cognitive psychological theory with economics and finance to provide explanations behind the irrational financial decisions investors make. Using these theories, behavioural finance explains stock market anomalies such as severe rises or falls in stock price. Behavioural finance assumes that both information structure and the characteristics of market investors influence investment decision of the individuals. This paper provides a thorough analysis of efficient market hypothesis and behavioural finance by taking into account the literature and market statistics.

Published in IOARP Journal of Management and Leadership

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Promoting School's Efficiency Through Academic and Non-Academic Outputs

Safi Ullah, Muhammad Yunas, Muhammad Iqbal, Hina Gul

Abstract

School’s outputs are graduates of the school who completed a given cycle of education in stipulated time. They have the requisite knowledge and skills induced by school. It may be in the form of different capacities created in students by schools such as competence in utilizing language, math, social and natural science and citizenship. Poor performance of output indicators may reflect various problems in programme design and implementation or adverse changes in external factors. Output indicators can be categorized into academic/cognitive and non-academic/non-cognitive. Academic/ cognitive outputs include learning skills, writing skills, knowledge of arithmetic, special knowledge of skills and specialization. In order to measure the cognitive outputs, the objectives of any particular age-group can be set, common curriculum can be devised and standardized tests can be formulated. Most parents expect that school will induce basic moral and ethical values in their wards as well as achievement in terminal examination. The school will also prepare students for their place in the wider society, not only in terms of cognitive skills but in social skills and interpersonal relationships, as well. Output indicators includes number of graduates at a particular level and their test scores; the information about dropout rate; completion rate, survival rate, examination pass rate, enhancing enrolment and minimizing dropout rate, increasing graduation rate are related to the efficiency of schools.

Published in IOARP Journal of Innovations in Teaching, Learning, and Assessment

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Consumer Marketing Engagement and Segment Multimedia Strategy for Launching a Beverage Product in Pakistan

Adnan Ashraf, Yousaf Raheel, Muhammad Adeel, Asghar Hussain

Abstract

Soft drinks market is the third largest revenue participant of Central Board of Revenue in terms of sales tax and excise duties. Pakistani beverage market has been growing since its inception. With several local and international companies interested in this lucrative business, this paper attempts to provide a much sought-after insight into various aspects of Pakistani consumer market by providing a consumer engagement and segment multimedia strategy for a future beverage product as a case study. The theories on consumer engagement and their application in perspective of Pakistani society, and a detailed analysis of considerable factors in consumer engagement in context of segment multimedia strategy are the highlights of this work. Although focused on Pakistani market, this case study is perfectly applicable in context of other Asian and African countries with similar socio-culture environment.

Published in IOARP Journal of Management and Leadership

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Analysis of Embedded Web Resources in Web of Things

Muhammad Nazim, Munam Ali Shah, Muhammad Kamran Abbasi

Abstract

It is estimated that 42 million devices are currently connected to the Internet. These devices are accessible to a web interface through which a user can easily connect and utilize these devices by a simple Internet web browser forming a Web of Things (WoT). The connectivity of millions of devices through WoT has eliminated the need of a proprietary or control software. In this paper, we investigate these web services and analyze web embedded devices and related services in WoT. We aim to provide an easy and concise view of the underlying WoT model adapted by each approach.

Published in Proceedings of the IOARP International Conference on Communication and Networks

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Problems Encountered By a Pre-School Teacher

Enzo Gomes Faria, Limoncho Tatoyoz, Muhammad Juman

Abstract

In this paper we aim at understanding the various problems encountered by a preschool teacher. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate root problems which are faced by teachers of all spectrums in kindergarten schools. We will also discuss different scenarios these super humans encounter in their day to day routine. It is often thought that teaching kids is fun, which is not always true. The toddlers have sudden mood swings and this can be very irritating for teachers when they have to handle a big class full kids who can’t even handle themselves and find every solution in crying. Patience and engaging activities planned by teachers is the only way which helps them in class control. The other problems faced by them are related to curriculum planning, hectic paperwork, handling administration, working in alliance with parents, low pays, and most of all handling toddler’s behavior.

Published in IOARP Journal of Innovations in Teaching, Learning, and Assessment

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Evaluation of the MPeersim – A Simulation Environment for Mobile Networks

M Adeel, L N Tokarchuk, M A Azam, S K A Khan

Abstract

MPeersim is a simulation environment for mobile and mobile P2P networks. It simulates different types of mobile nodes and communication technologies such as Bluetooth, MMS, and SMS. With a primary emphasis of evaluation of MPeersim in terms of simulation statistics, this paper will elaborate on various MPeersim functionalities in context of availability of generic, node, and network-specific simulation parameters, node and network-specific statistics available for various types of analyses, and on the capabilities of MPeersim in terms of presenting empirical data in different formats including graphs and visualisations for monitoring purposes. Providing a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between parameters and statistics will assist researchers in planning for developing simulation environments.

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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Development of a Management Information System for UK Cash & Carry Business

Michael James Wood

Abstract

This paper discusses the management and development of information systems in a small to medium sized cash and carry organization based in the United Kingdom. The paper discusses development for IT requirements, maintenance and the Input/outputs of operations for employees working in data processing or an IT department. Social and ethical issues are also discussed as well as how data base management systems can be useful to produce reports for middle to higher management.

Published in IOARP Journal of Management and Leadership

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SKEP & SEEKDP: Towards Secure and Energy-Efficient Key Exchange and Distribution in Wireless Sensor Networks

Munir Hussain, Khalid Khan

Abstract

Security and Energy are important issues when wireless sensor network (WSN) is deployed in harsh environments. WSN security becomes real challenge for the researchers because these networks are vulnerable to security attacks due to the broadcast nature of transmission. Due to the limited memory, CPU, and battery power of sensor nodes, traditional asymmetric-key distribution protocols are expensive and rather infeasible. Thus only a very few conventional protocols can readily be used in sensor networks and key management schemes should be designed carefully to reduce computations power over the sensor node as well. In this paper we analyse existing Key Management Protocols like SPINS, SEKEN, SNAKE, and Security Architecture for Mobile WSNs and BROSK for their vulnerabilities against Denial of Service attacks. In WSNs, where the most protocols working on point-to-point handshaking procedures to negotiate link dependent keys, this influence the scalability of the network, we present a novel protocol SKEP to construct link dependent keys by unicasting. We also propose SEEKDP a security protocol that prevents certain attacks, distribute keys, exchange information in an efficient manner and provide security by consuming less energy of regular sensor node.

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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Efficient Data Aggregation Scheme in Secure Tree based Wireless Sensor Networks (EDAS)

Khalid Khan

Abstract

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have emerged as an important area of research from the last two decades. In WSNs, sensors have limited memory, computational capability and battery power. One of the solutions to these issues is to reduce the data transmission and today, various data aggregation protocols have been proposed to reduce network traffic. But they created security issues like authentication, data integrity and freshness. Hop-by-hop secure data aggregation protocols were proposed to provide security along with data aggregation function. But, data on the aggregators still need to be secured because aggregators are exposed to node compromises. End-to-end secure data aggregation protocols are proposed. They provide end-to-end security and privacy of data. One of these protocols is Secure End-to-End Data Aggregation (SEEDA), which ensured end-to-end privacy of data. However, the protocol has higher communication cost and computational overheads because it sends extra bits/data regarding non-responding nodes and performs unnecessary computations for non-responding nodes. I proposed new protocol, EDAS which reduces 12% to 25% communication and computational overheads as compared to SEEDA and it is also efficient in energy consumption.

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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Study of Network Design Considerations for Small Businesses

Michael James Wood

Abstract

This paper investigates the logical and physical network design considerations for a small business.  Moreover, the paper investigates how a business facing data consistency issues may address the issue by implementing a network design solution and how networks can be monitored and protected from security threats. Part one of this paper investigates the networking solution and networking topologies. Part two discusses networking infrastructure such as the purchasing of necessary networking devices to centralize the businesses data communications and background and foreground services. Part three of this paper discusses various aspects of network and data communication monitoring using a networking tool provided by SolarWinds. The last section, part four investigates a security proposal for the businesses network and discusses data recovery, malware and authentication.

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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Classroom Disruptions: Causes, Effects, and Strategies for Tackling Disruptive Behaviour

Aaqil Al Rashid, Safwa Al Jafri, Iyaad Al Molla

Abstract

Classroom settings and disruptive behaviour are critical topics in society today because of the growing concerns of bullying related suicides, enhancement of electronic and social media use, and mental health and cultural issues. While disruptive behaviour may seem insignificant for some, many times there are serious underlying issues that need to be addressed. In this paper we will discuss different types of disruptive behaviours in the classroom setting and explore key reasons behind such behaviours.

Published in IOARP Journal of Innovations in Teaching, Learning, and Assessment

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Dynamics of Marketed Surplus of Major Vegetables in Multan, Pakistan

Manan Aslam, Muhammad Ahsin Ayub, Mudassar Yasin, Qumer Iqbal, Bilal Atta

Abstract

Vegetable production is concentrated in peri-urban areas as related to the rural production areas because of increasing people preferences towards the ingestion of fresh vegetables and nutritious diet. Vegetables are good source of proteins, minerals and vitamins, which are essential for human health. Agricultural commercialization provides different opportunities for better income and sustainable livelihood for farmers having small land holdings. Nearly 63 different kinds of vegetables are grown in all provinces of Pakistan, but potatoes, cauliflower, brinjal, onions and tomatoes are frequently grown vegetables. These are vended by traditional marketing e.g. through farmer, wholesaler, pharia and retailer to consumers. In this perspective, this study was designed to explore marketing systems of three selected kharif vegetables including, ladyfinger, bitter gourd and brinjal. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to draw a sample of 45 farmers. Questionnaires were developed and pretested to collect data from selected respondents. A regression model was estimated to analyze effect of major factors, affecting marketed surplus of vegetables. The results showed that peri- urban farmers sold high proportions of their vegetables. Better prices and market information are the main incentives for increased sales of the vegetables.

Published in IOARP Journal of Management and Leadership

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Strategic Planning: Analysis of the Past, Present, and Future Strategies of the Vodafone

Bernd Sanger, Emine Beyza Arikan, Asma Hosseini

Abstract

This paper provides an evaluation of the past, present, and future strategic plans of Vodafone. To design any strategy for future, it is imperative to analyse the important parts of strategic plans of the company in the past. Thus in this work, we provides a detailed analysis of Vodafone’s strategic plan from the past decade. Similarly, to identify the aspects of strategic importance for Vodafone in the present times, this work provides an overview of the key components of the current strategic plan of Vodafone. Finally, based on the study of the past and present strategies, and critical variables affecting telecom industry in general and Vodafone in particular, this work proposes some critical components of any future strategic plan for Vodafone. Based on the analysis as part of this work, we also propose various improvements to the value chain of Vodafone.

Published in IOARP Journal of Management and Leadership

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Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN): Security and Authentication Methods

Munir Hussain

Abstract

The demand for WBAN has increased for last few years because it is useful network to monitor and improve various health conditions of human being. Information’s exchanges among different entities are very sensitive, so it is vital to keep this information’s secure from unauthorized access in order to avoid unpleasant incidents. Security and privacy are the most critical issues. Security is the important issue for any network and especially in WBANs its proper management is very crucial otherwise biomedical data collected by sensor nodes should be mixed with other user’s data. Also patients do not want their personal data to be misused and WBAN should provide the privacy to prevent eavesdropping. Mutual authentication is also a key challenge in WBAN and patients’ data originality and integrity are important for their treatment diagnosis etc. Development of the new mutual authentication schemes in healthcare applications without considering security makes patient privacy vulnerable. In this paper, we discuss communication technologies, possible attacks and recently most used popular authentication methods in WBANs.

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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Integrated Marketing Communication Strategy: Launching a Beverage Product in South Asian Markets

Yousaf Raheel

Abstract

This paper provides an integrated marketing communication strategy for launching a beverage product in Pakistan. Context analyses conducted as part of this study include internal and external analysis, business analysis, stakeholder analysis, and customer analysis. In context of marketing communication strategy, this research includes SMART marketing communication objectives, a detailed discussion on considerations in developing marketing communication strategy, a comprehensive strategy to achieve marketing communication objectives, and discussion on the mechanism of controlling and evaluation of marketing communications plan. It is important to highlight that although in this work, a focus has been placed on the consumer market of Pakistan, due to socio-cultural and demographic similarities between the countries in South Asia, this strategy will prove equally effective in India, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Nepal and Bhutan.

Published in IOARP Journal of Management and Leadership

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Understanding Employee Retention: Processes, Best Practices, Myths, and Important Factors

Assem Bin Bandar, Ahmed Alhoqail, Jiangling Liu

Abstract

The study describes the relationship between the Human Resource Management practices and the employee retention. It has become essential to retain the best employees to the organisations performance. The research reviews relevant literature to identify HR practices that influence the employee retention and also the effect on the overall organisational performance by retaining the right and efficient employees. Therefore, it is important to have a productive and efficient workforce to collectively focus on the organisation’s success. In this paper we provide highlight the importance of employee retention in HRM, discuss the critical process and best practices in employee retention, briefly summarise the myths in the context, and provide a detailed discussion on the factors affecting employee retention.

Published in IOARP Journal of Management and Leadership

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Efficient Market Hypothesis: An Evaluation of the Efficiency of Indian Capital Markets

Bernd Sanger, Emine Beyza Arikan, Mehul Mehta, Asma Hosseini

Abstract

Market efficiency refers to the accuracy and quickness with which prices reflect market related information. Decisions of investment by an investor in a market is influenced by many factors, one of the most important is the market efficiency. Research reveals that if a market is efficient, it is extremely difficult to make excessive returns. In an efficient market there exist next to none undervalued securities. With the first stock exchange started functioning in 1875 Indian stock markets have been lucrative for the traders from around the world. This paper attempts to analyse the efficiency of the Indian capital markets. Research from the literature and the interviews of the renowned investors have been used to reach a conclusion. Some tips in context of investment strategy have also been provided.

Published in IOARP Journal of Management and Leadership

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Professionalism: Understanding its Meaning and Impact in Relation to Effective Teaching and Learning

Asghar Hussain

Abstract

This paper will focus on elucidating what it means to be a modern professional in the teaching sector. It will discuss the notion of professionalism in light of changes in education and educational reform. Furthermore, it will highlight the importance of reflective practice, and as a consequence, the teachers will develop a clear understanding of their position within the educational sector as professional practitioners.

Published in IOARP Journal of Innovations in Teaching, Learning, and Assessment

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A Hybrid Model for Usability of Mobile Applications

Rabia Afzal Minhas, Khola Rafique, Ali Javed, Muhammad Awais Azam

Abstract

The success of mobile applications depends upon its usability. Of all the non-functional requirements, usability dimension is the foremost requirement for mobile applications. Usability of mobile applications should be high so that users can interact with them easily. There have been many models proposed that help developers for making mobile applications more usable. But they did not address all of the issues. In our paper, we propose a framework which is hybrid of multiple models like ISO, Moe, Voelle, Nielsen Zhang and Pacmad. In this paper, we also introduce a novel feature “Waste-app” for efficient utilization of memory. It automatically cleans up cache and the apps which are in use for a long time. Proposed methodology shows that inclusion of this new feature and the new hybrid model gives better results in usability aspects.

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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Ad-hoc and Opportunistic Routing in Dynamic Scatternet Environment 

S K A Khan, M Adeel, M A Azam

Abstract

In reality, mobile ad-hoc networks are highly unpredictable because any node can join or leave the network at any time, thus making reliable and effective communication a problem. This issue is addressed by introducing new breed of ad-hoc networking, known as opportunistic networks. Opportunistic networking is a concept that has evolved from mobile ad-hoc networking. In opportunistic networks nodes have no prior knowledge of routes to intended destinations. Any node in the network can be used as potential forwarder with the exception of taking information one step closer to intended destination. The forwarding decision is based on the information gathered from the source node or encountering node. The opportunistic forwarding can only be achieved if message forwarding is carried out in store and forward fashion. Although, opportunistic networks are more flexible than traditional MANETs, however, due to little insight of network, it poses distinct challenges such as intermittent connectivity, variable delays, short connection duration and dynamic topology. Addressing these challenges in opportunistic network is the basis for developing new and efficient protocols for information sharing. This paper presents a conceptual study for opportunistic networks to improve the overall message delivery at destinations while keeping the communication cost very low. Some assumptions are considered to improved directivity of message flow towards intended destinations. These assumptions exploit human social relationships analogies such as popularity and use of hybrid communication by applying opportunistic concepts on top of traditional ad-hoc routing such as AODV to gain maximum message directivity. The experiment results have shown that by combining traditional ad-hoc routing with opportunistic forwarding has not only improved directivity but as a result have achieved a great improvement in message delivery to intended destinations.

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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An Evaluation of the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Supply Chain of a UK Retailer

Braydon Guascoine, Surintan Binti, Zhang Yongtan

Abstract

With over 1100 stores nation-wide and revenue of more than £23 billion Sainsbury’s is one of the UK’s largest retail groups. This paper provides a much-needed insight into the supply chain of Sainsbury’s in context of fast-spoiling fresh fruit and vegetable product line. A detailed overview of literature has been conducted to highlight the best practices in supply chain management process which has helped identify important components of the SCM an organisation should focus on. With the help of this overview, questionnaires were prepared to conduct a survey from the customers and the staff of Sainsbury’s. As a result of this survey, critical problems in Sainsbury’s supply chain management process for fresh fruit and vegetables were identified  

Published in IOARP Journal of Management and Leadership

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Evaluation of Energy Efficiency of Popular Mobile Payment Protocols

Munir Hussain, Syed Usman Jamil

Abstract

Over the last few years, the popularity of both electronic and mobile commerce (M-Commerce) has increased due to advancement in the Information Technology (IT). Evaluation of E-commerce and M-commerce protocols has always remained a subject of sustained effort to find an optimal solution. Mobile devices are resource constrained in terms of memory, processing and battery power. There have been efforts in the past for evaluation of such protocols based on the issues like privacy, security and efficiency. In this paper special consideration however is given to the battery power and thus evaluates few well-known M-commerce payment protocols for their battery requirements in terms of energy cost and compares energy cost of these protocols to find the most optimal solution for mobile payment.  Initial objective of this paper finds out energy consumption for every individual entity involved in the most popular mobile payments protocols. After the earlier has been achieved, the second and the most fundamental objective of this work is to calculate the overall energy consumption and to analyze these selected protocols to find out the most energy efficient protocol. 

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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Creating Brands for Airline Industry – Marketing Planning to Launch a Commercial Helicopter Service

Adnan Ashraf, Yousaf Raheel, Muhammad Adeel, Asghar Hussain

Abstract

Over the years, tourism industry has remained a key player in Pakistani economy. It has although seen its worst downfall in history due to the incidents of terrorism in the past 15 years, in the recent years, this industry is on the rise/booming again. Airline industry has played a key role in connecting far-flung tourist heavens of Pakistan to the mainland. After researching the Pakistani airline industry, this work provides a preliminary marketing plan for a proposed commercial helicopter service for a leading airline in Pakistan. The paper includes a comprehensive internal and external analysis of the airline to assess the feasibility of the proposed service. Besides providing a situation analysis, this paper also includes a detailed 4 Ps analysis, and an evaluation of value addition for the consumer in the proposed marketing strategy.

Published in IOARP Journal of Management and Leadership

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Analysis of the Key Components of Supply Chain of a UK Retailer in the Context of Fresh Fruit and Vegetables

Braydon Guascoine, Surintan Binti, Zhang Yongtan, Panagiotis Lekakos

Abstract

This paper is aimed at evaluation of the supply chain of Sainsbury’s, one of the leading UK retailers in context of delivery of fruits and vegetables. We will assess supply chain of Sainsbury’s in context of key components such as inventory, facilities, transportation, and warehousing technologies. We attempt to analyse how Sainsbury’s manages their supply chain function to ensure the effective and efficient flow of fresh fruit and vegetable into operation, so as to better serve customer and reduce costs. We will explore their practices and discuss how recent improvements in their supply chain have helped Sainsbury’s become a more efficient and cost-effective.

Published in IOARP Journal of Management and Leadership

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Evaluation of Employee Retention Strategies in Indian BPO Industry: IBM Case Study

Assem Bin Bandar, Qusai Farouq Almeqdadi, Jiangling Liu

Abstract

Over the past two decade the importance of the employee retention has grown. Most of the organisations understand that human resources are one of the primary factors for the organisational success and their growth. In the globalised world the competition between the organisations has increased and they are not going back to pay the price to acquire and retain the best talents in the market. Efficient and dedicated employees will drive the organisation towards goals. In the Human resource management the employee retention is one of the top most priorities for the organisation’s performance.
The study explores the importance of the employee retention and how it affects the organisational performance. The study also investigates the strategies adopted by the IBM India. With the aid of valuable data, the study explores the link between retaining the best talents in the market and an increase in the organisational performance.

Published in IOARP Journal of Management and Leadership

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Strategies to Teach Child with Dyslexia in Classroom

Jin Mao, Colin Turcotte, Arjun Brar

Abstract

In this paper we aim at discussing various strategies adopted by teachers in order to help child with dyslexia cope up with class. The time spent in attaining the education plays a significant part of child’s development. For a teacher, aiding a dyslexic child is a wonderful as well as challenging task. Dyslexic students have learning differences due to which they can’t hold information for long and may not be able to grasp the information at all. It is important to understand that dyslexic learner neither lacks in intelligence nor willfulness, only constant support provided by mentors can help them in learning. However, with the guidance of professional tutors, well equipped and tested strategies- students are able to learn and achieve a lot.

Published in IOARP Journal of Innovations in Teaching, Learning, and Assessment

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Relationship between Principal’s Instructional Supervision and Teacher’s Performance at Secondary Level in Peshawar

Safi Ullah, Um-e-Kulsoom, Mamriz Khan

Abstract

It is an established fact that the teachers are the catalysts for improving the quality of the teaching-learning process. This research is aimed at understanding the perception of teachers on the contribution of principal’s instructional supervision towards the performance of teachers. The principal is supposed to procure teaching materials to the schools for teachers to work with in order to improve classroom instruction. Principals may always be ready to assist the teachers and interact with them in a cordial manner. This study is aimed to explore the “Relationship between Principal’s Instructional Supervision and its Influence on Teacher's Performance at Secondary School Level in Peshawar”. For this purpose data was collected from 25 girls’ high & higher secondary schools. Eight teachers from each school were randomly selected, thus 200 teachers constituted the sample for the study. A questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondent teachers. The reliability test of the test items was carried out. The questionnaire was administered among 20 teachers other than the sample. Cronbach’s Alpha was carried out that has yielded results within the acceptable range. Data analysis was carried out by using statistical tools such as Descriptive Statistics, One-Sample t-test, Pearson Correlation-test, and Regression Analysis. The management may provide latest instructional technology to the educational institution for effective teaching-learning process. Finally, recommendations were put forward that could facilitate other researchers to carry out their research on the use of instructional technology at secondary school level.

Published in IOARP Journal of Innovations in Teaching, Learning, and Assessment

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Examination of Main Fruit and Vegetables Market in Multan District of Pakistan

Muhammad Hamza, Manan Aslam, Bakhatawar Sharif , Sami Ullah, Arqam Iqbal, M.Ali Imran

Abstract

In this paper we will examine various market practices and operations that are being performed in the fruits and vegetables markets in Multan. Improving the agricultural marketing system is the key to the development of Pakistan agrarian economy. The legal framework for agricultural marketing system in Pakistan has developed over time. The Agriculture Produce Markets Act, 1939 was promulgated on the recommendations of Royal Commission on Agriculture, constituted by the British Indian Government with the objective to regulate agribusiness and to do away the evils and vices inherent in the agricultural marketing system. Market Committees were established under the provisions of this act and assigned the task of safeguarding interests of growers. After independence, the same act was implemented in Pakistan. All agricultural marketing activities (especially the working of wholesale markets) in the province of Punjab are legally controlled under this ordinance. 244 agricultural markets along with 81 feeder markets handle food grains, fruits and vegetables in Punjab. Punjab Agricultural Marketing Company has been established by the Government of Punjab under the Public-Private initiative to energize agribusiness and marketing in Punjab. The major areas of interest of this organization include development of integrated cold storage chains, enhancing and improving processing and marketing of agricultural commodities. In Punjab for instance, agricultural marketing was managed by the Directorate of Economics and Marketing, working under the Department of Agricultural Marketing.

Published in IOARP Journal of Management and Leadership

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Internal and External Analysis of a UK Retailer and Identification of Variables for Assessment

Braydon Guascoine, Surintan Binti

Abstract

Before devising a strategy, it is requisite to perform the internal and external analysis of the company to better understand its market position. This paper aims to provide a detailed assessment of the UK retailer Sainsbury’s through PEST analysis, Porter’s Five Force model, SWOT analysis, 7S model and a brief financial position analysis. The research will not only help identify the current position and future opportunities for Sainsbury’s but will also help identify the variables through which other UK retailers could be assessed in future.

Published in IOARP Journal of Management and Leadership

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On the Importance of Communicating Behaviour Expectations in the First Session of a Class

Muhammad Adeel

Abstract

Classroom management has a critical impact on effective teaching and learning. Classroom disruptions are the pattern of repeated behaviour that significantly interrupts the teaching and learning process. It, therefore, becomes vital to handle these disruptions and the ability of a teacher to handle classroom discipline is given key priority in observation of teaching and learning conducted by the regulators. In this paper, we will focus on evaluating the importance of communicating behaviour expectations to the students in the very first session and its impact on effective teaching and learning. The analysis is based on the review of the literature, interviews, and a survey questionnaire completed by the teachers.

Published in IOARP Journal of Innovations in Teaching, Learning, and Assessment

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Tackling Noisy Students and the Mobile Phone Usage in the Classroom: A Disruptive Behaviour Case Study

Muhammad Adeel, Asghar Hussain

Abstract

Disruptive behaviour is the most critical and persistent challenge a teacher faces throughout his career. Pedagogists term disruptive behaviour as the behaviour that stops the process of learning to take place. Disruptive behaviour has a catastrophically demoralising effect on the teachers. Study of the literature reveals that the instances of classroom disruptions date back to the 13th century Rome. An active research in this domain has enabled researchers to devise effective strategies to cope with disruptions of various natures. This case study analyses classroom disruptions caused by students indulged in making excessive noise, and use of mobile phones. We assess physical, emotional, and environmental factors behind these disruptions, and discuss strategies to effectively tackle them.

Published in IOARP Journal of Innovations in Teaching, Learning, and Assessment

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Lateness and Absenteeism in Observed Classes: A Reflection on Practice

Asghar Hussain, Muhammad Adeel

Abstract

This paper focuses on the issues of creativity in teaching, motivation, and the ways in which various strategies can be implemented to promote inclusive teaching practice. Furthermore, through the use of these strategies, and, a selection of relevant learning theories, we will attempt to come to logical and reasoned conclusions on how best to tackle the critical incidents presented in this case study.

Published in IOARP Journal of Innovations in Teaching, Learning, and Assessment

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Operations Management: On Identification of Optimal Theory to Solve Queuing Problem in Fashion Retail Stores

Ajay Sangha, Dilmaya Khadka, Karim Tasneem

Abstract

This paper provides an insight into the operations management of Primark in the context of queuing problem at the tills. We analyse this problem in light of various queuing theories to determine the most optimal theory. We provide a wide range of recommendations to handle this problem at Primark. This case study and the recommendations will not only help the company in question, but could be used by the retailers in other sectors to improve their operations, consequently achieving efficiency and higher degrees of customer satisfaction.

Published in IOARP Journal of Management and Leadership

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Strategic Management: Case Study of a UK Retailer

Xue T'ao, Nadhirah Zaimi, Jono Santoso

Abstract

Tesco is the third-largest retailer in the world measured by gross revenues and ninth-largest retailer in the world measured by revenues. This paper analyses the strategic management at Tesco in different dimensions. We attempt to study its business economics using objectives and mission statement, PESTEL analysis, and SWOT analysis. We analyse its strategy and processes by evaluation of the alignment of company’s direction with its vision statement, and through the use of balance scorecards and utilising game theory technique. We also explore the aspects of international expansion strategy of Tesco by evaluating various positional international markets and through employing PEST analysis.

Published in IOARP Journal of Management and Leadership

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Privacy-Preserving in Collaborative Working Environments

Wajeeha Naeem, Munam Ali Shah, Ahmad Kamran Malik

Abstract

A Collaborative Working Environment (CWE) requires information sharing but at the same time users’ privacy is another important requisite. In order to perform collaborative tasks efficiently, a user requires sharing of some of his information with other collaborating users. To manage the sharing and privacy issues effectively, we need to extend NIST standard Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) model. This will help users in order to allow them to specify their own rules that can be dynamically adapted at run time. There are some other models which are introduced to enhance collaborative sharing and improving privacy of users’ information such as Team-based Access Control (TMAC) Model and Extended RBAC Model which is an enhancement of core RBAC model. In this paper, these aforementioned models, which are related to sharing and privacy preservation, are discussed and after their implementation, they are compared and evaluated using privacy, sharing and rule based metrics.

Published in Proceedings of the IOARP International Conference on Communication and Networks

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Operational Management: A Tesco UK Case Study

Andrew Hlongwane, Hassan Hadad, Festus Kemi

Abstract

Operational management lies at the core of a company’s management. It ensures that the business processes, finance, and the technology in the company is managed affectively to help realise the company’s vision and mission. This paper provides an overview of the financial management, the human resource management aspects of operational management, and information system management of Tesco, a UK retailer.

Published in IOARP Journal of Management and Leadership

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Lightweight Secure and Scalable Key Sharing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

Munir Hussain, Khalid Khan

Abstract

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) technology is still immature and thus faces a variety of problems due to limited memory, CPU and battery power resources. WSNs are prone to active and passive attacks. While the former is capable of affecting minimal resources, the latter type of attack is difficult to launch but very powerful in terms of affecting critical resources. Most shared key security protocols used in WSNs are not scalable as they depend upon third party or KDC. Although in some situations this concept works well, besides reducing scalability, finding a trustworthy third party is also very difficult in KDC concept of key sharing. This paper gives a brief overview of WSNs, posed security threats to these networks and relevant security issues. This paper also brings in a novel key sharing model for traversing secret key in WSNs that does not depend on third party concept and hence it is a more scalable and secure.

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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ICN Framework and Its Challenges for IOT Applications

Syed Usman Jamil, Khalid Khan

Abstract

The early internet user needs were coped by current internet architecture that was based on host-centric communication model. Now a day, usage as well as requirements of internet is changed however mostly internet users are interested to access large amount of data/information regardless of physical location.  This paradigm changes in the internet usage model along with mobility support, better security and pressing needs of users has invited researchers to consider radical changes in the internet architecture. By following this direction, we have reviewed many on-going efforts of researchers in which the future internet can be developed on the foundation of Information- Centric Networking. To sync billions of objects over the internet is promised by the internet of things (IOT). To deploy numerous individual IOT architectures, in domains of diverse nature, the ongoing trend is to deploy a common IOT platform, so that objects may be accessible and synchronized with applications across domains and organizations. To achieve this goal, limited proposals are developed to model unified host centric IOT infrastructure operate at upper layer of current host centric internet. Therefore, fundamental mismatch is evident in between the today’s host centric nature of internet and IOT system having information centric nature. We propose to develop common set of services and protocols to resolve this mismatch, which form a platform for IOT, on the basis of ICN paradigm, which may be named as ICN-IOT platform.  ICN-IOT merger is the ICN salient feature and therefore enables seamless scalability, mobility support and efficient service and content delivery. The main aim of these investigations is to find out the core functionalities of ICN architectures, overview of IOT functionalities and architectural requirements, and the review of ICN over IOT implementations and their advantages and challenges to sketch out the key unresolved challenges in this field of networking research.

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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Ad hoc and Opportunistic Routing in Static Scatternet Environment

Sardar Kashif Ashraf Khan, Jonathan Loo, Muhammad Adeel, Muhammad Awais Azam

Abstract

Peer-to-peer connectivity between mobile phones using technologies such as Bluetooth has given a new dimension to the mobile communication. Peers through the help of various underlying protocols can form piconets and scatternets to transparently communicate the content across the network. There however are issues like reliability in communication, delay and the cost of communication that need to be considered before resorting to this form of communication. This paper presents a study where opportunistic concept such as Bubble Rap is tested in Bluetooth ad hoc networking environment. The notion behind this research is to study the properties of these two networking environments, since opportunistic networks are derived from ad hoc networks. Thus, study of these two different environments yet related to each other may help us find new ways of message forwarding in Bluetooth communication environment. This paper is aimed at investigating the behaviour of nodes present in Bluetooth static scatternet environment by 1) studying message transfer from a source to destination using traditional ad hoc communication protocols such as AODV and 2) message transfer using opportunistic algorithms such as Bubble Rap on top of traditional ad hoc communication. This paper also proposes a concept of ranking to transfer messages to the node that has higher social centrality ranking compared to the current node. Nodes with varying social ranking are allowed to join piconets and forward messages based on Bubble Rap concept in scatternet environment. In BR algorithm, nodes forward messages to only those encountering nodes which are more popular than the current node.

Published in Proceedings of the IOARP International Conference on Communication and Networks

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On Propagation of Generic and Real-World Mobile Malware

Muhammad Adeel, Laurissa N Tokarchuk, S K A Khan, Muhammad Awais Azam

Abstract

Mobile malware has surfaced as a key challenge in recent years. With four hundred distinct types of mobile malware and approximately twelve hundred of their variants discovered to-date, there is a growing need of propagation analysis of mobile malware families to preempt the future malware threats and strategies. This paper provides an analysis of generic and real-world mobile malware to not only investigate their propagation capabilities but to also explore their implications on network and mobile resources.

Published in Proceedings of the IOARP International Conference on Communication and Networks

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Curriculum Development for Inclusive Education

Asghar Hussain

Abstract

Using a short revision course as a test case, this paper will look at the wider issues revolving around developing a curriculum; it will look closely at the process and praxis of the educational journey to attain the product with a deeper understanding of what is being studied. The paper will also discuss how the managing of product and process, amidst a lecturer/teacher’s knowledge of their students is increasingly important. In addition, recognizing the student’s objectives and pushing them to search out (with a certain degree of autonomy) their own objectives through reflection and contextualization of learning.

Published in IOARP Journal of Innovations in Teaching, Learning, and Assessment

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Developing a Marketing Plan to Introduce Hair & Beauty Products

Yousaf Raheel

Abstract

This paper provides a marketing plan for a proposed Head & Shoulders Olive Oil Extracts shampoo brand. Internal and external market analysis has been provided using SWOT, PESTEL, and Porter 5 Force Model. A thorough marketing strategy has been provided though 4 Ps Marketing Mix model along with a detailed assessment of value to consumers as a consequence of the marketing strategy.

Published in IOARP Journal of Management and Leadership

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Information System Proposal for Middle and Senior Management: A UK Retailer Case Study

Daniel Jones

Abstract

The paper analyses the significant elements of information technology in the supermarket chain Tesco. The overall purpose of information systems in an organisation will be identified and explained. In the paper, it talks about how Tesco revolutionises the supermarket sector with innovative ideas to stay ahead of the competition. Tesco innovates on current systems and makes them personal to the company. The paper highlights the role of information systems to keep Tesco working efficiently and effectively. They are the key to automating manual processes to aid productivity, development and enable real-time data to make decisions — Tesco uses systems such as a software package called ‘GOLD’ to maintain a competitive advantage. As the leader of the supermarket sector, the business must continue to innovate ideas to remain competitive. Network systems that are associated with Tesco are analysed to highlight the importance of communication between all the stores, depots and head office. Tesco has a system that is centralised and consolidated into a single infrastructure.

Published in IOARP Journal of Management and Leadership

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Social Aspectsof 3G/4G Cellular Network Deployment in Pakistan

Sardar Aadilur Rehman, Munam Ali Shah, Sijing Zhang

Abstract

The smartphone looks the most appropriate communications technology in today's global world. Through this, people can connect to other people for different purposes, e.g., business, commerce, social networking and education etc. The success story of 2nd Generation of wireless mobile communication has been tremendous in Pakistan. The recently launched 3G and 4G cellular technologies in the country offer higher data rates and more connectivity options. In this paper, our contribution is two-fold. Firstly, we investigate the social impacts of 3G/4G cellular networks in Pakistan. Secondly, we conduct a survey about the appropriateness of the technology in the country from social aspects. The survey reveals some interesting results which could be used by service providers and policy makers to make the 3G/4G experience more beneficial. 

Published in Proceedings of the IOARP International Conference on Communication and Networks

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Leadership Styles and their Impact on Faculty Job Satisfaction: Case Study of a Public Sector University in South Asia

Yousaf Raheel, Muhammad Arshad Khalil, Mohammad Amer Shahzad

Abstract

Research to-date has focused mainly on the impact of leadership styles of academic administrators of primary and secondary education institutions on faculty job satisfaction. There was however a growing need to investigate the correlation between leadership styles of academic administrators of higher education institutions i.e. universities particularly the public sector universities in South Asia on job satisfaction of faculty.
Through use of Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, this paper identifies the leadership styles of several academic administrators of the public sector university in question who have served on this role during past 12 years. An assessment of faculty job satisfaction was performed through Job Satisfaction Survey whereas a correlation between various styles of leadership adopted by the academic administrators of the university in question and their impact on faculty job satisfaction has been studied.

Published in Proceedings of the IOARP International Conference on Management, Leadership, and Entrepreneurship

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Development of Postpaid and Prepaid Billing System for ISPs

Azhar-ud-din, Ali Javed, Ayesha Hanif, M. Awais Azam, Tasawer Hussain

Abstract

ISPs generally provide two types of connections to their customers, varying primarily in payment options: postpaid and prepaid connections. In recent years, with the rapid development of broadband industry in third-world countries like Pakistan, it has become possible to meet the ever growing demands of internet users. Prepaid connections offered by ISPs continue to satisfy customer demands as the packages are skillfully tailored to meet growing demands of rapid connectivity without hassle of equipment installment time, serve customer’s mobility needs of accessing internet at more than one location, offer flexible rate packages for day and night timings and meet limited duration connectivity needs of tourists etc. Postpaid ISP billing solutions available in market are expensive and yet they fail to fulfill all of users’ requirements; specifically the mobility need. Now ISPs are keen in developing their own billing systems instead of buying non-customized applications from vendors. Most ISPs use AAA protocol for Authentication, Authorization and Accounting of their customers. For this feature, FreeRADIUS is the most widely deployed RADIUS server in the world, not only because it is an open source implementation of AAA but also because of its multitude of strengths. In this paper we explore these strengths and then propose a methodology of developing an ISP’s own pre-paid billing system using freeRADIUS. 

Published in Proceedings of the IOARP International Conference on Communication and Networks

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