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Recent Publications

Recept Publications Description.

Classroom Disruptions: Causes, Effects, and Strategies for Tackling Disruptive Behaviour

Azhar Khan

Abstract

Classroom settings and disruptive behaviour are critical topics in society today because of the growing concerns of bullying related suicides, enhancement of electronic and social media use, and mental health and cultural issues. While disruptive behaviour may seem insignificant for some, many times there are serious underlying issues that need to be addressed. In this paper we will discuss different types of disruptive behaviours in the classroom setting and explore key reasons behind such behaviours.

Published in Proceedings of the SchoRes International Conference on Education

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Impact of Heavy School Bags on Student’s Physical Health and Learning Outcomes in Primary Schools of District Peshawar, KP

Sara Amin

Abstract

Kids are almost left with no options than to carry heavy school bags to school these days for a number of reasons. It has been observed by pediatricians that such a thing automatically leads to strained backs and necks in growing children, and also impacts the learning outcomes of the students. It is not any more uncommon to find students, especially in middle schools carrying huge bags weighing up to 30 pounds on their backs on a regular basis. Each year millions of students carry heavy bags with their shoulders drawn down with the weight. It is not surprising then that children complain of back pain, neck sprains etc.
Previously there are different studies in some developed countries regarding the impacts of Heavy Bags on Child`s health and learning outcome. In Pakistan, there is very little consideration awarded to analysis of student`s physical health and learning outcomes in context of the heavy bags they carry. Hence the role of Heavy bags presents an important area for analysis of the impacts of heavy bags in primary students in Pakistan. 
The study used a self-administered questionnaire among teachers of sampled students from Public Schools in Peshawar KPK. The data collected was analyzed using statistical tools. The results suggested that that the respondents agreed that students in their class have heavy bags, their students complain of back pain due to heavy bags and often suffer muscle pain. Students have short attention span, often have damaged spinal cord, suffer with back pain and hence leads to absence of students from school.  The results also signify that heavy bags results in low concentration, fatigue, learning and effect activities of the students.  

Published in Proceedings of the SchoRes International Conference on Education

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On the Significance of Communicating Behavior Expectations to the Students During Early Stages of an Academic Course

Muhammad Adeel, Saif Al Sultan

Abstract

Classroom management has a critical impact on effective teaching and learning. Classroom disruptions are the pattern of repeated behavior that significantly interrupts the teaching and learning process. It, therefore, becomes vital to handle these disruptions and the ability of a teacher to handle classroom discipline is given key priority in observation of teaching and learning conducted by the regulators. In this paper, we will focus on evaluating the significance of communicating behavior expectations to the students earlier on in the course, or ideally in the very first session, and its impact on effective teaching and learning. The analysis is based on the review of literature, interviews, and on the results of a survey completed by the teachers of a UK-based FE institution.

Published in Proceedings of the SchoRes International Conference on Education

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Establish the Enrollment Trend of the 4th Grade in District Muzaffarabad

Nafeesa Mir Zaman, Amjad Reba2

Abstract

This study aimed to describe the enrollment trend to 4th grade students of selected public schools of city Muzaffarabad. For this purpose, researcher had selected 6 public schools through simple random sampling. A questionnaire containing different sections entitled as enrollment trends, school attendance on daily basis and education was designed to collect the data from different schools. This study revealed many important aspects that are necessary to be addressed in the public schools of district Muzaffarabad. The present study also yielded different ways for further research. This study also examined that there is low enrollment of the students at the 4th grade in the public schools of the district Muzaffarabad. It is recommended that the stakeholders should provide all the necessities to government schools that are essential for the formal and modern education. There should be a focus on the improvement of the public schools and parents should be engaged in the educational setup so that they can identify their children interests and abilities to perform better in their academic life. Because of the benefits students’ enrollment and attendance rates are high then the public school.

Published in Proceedings of the SchoRes International Conference on Education

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Strategies of Teachers for Dealing with Student Misbehavior in Classroom

Sana Rahat, Amjad Reba

Abstract

This research aims to analyze different strategies of teachers for dealing with the misbehavior of students in a classroom. The objectives of the study were to determine the most common disruptive misbehavior of students and to explore different strategies used by teachers for dealing with problematic students. The nature of the study is quantitative. Four schools were conveniently selected from Cantt, Saddar Peshawar area. The respondents will be 9th and 10th-class teachers. For data collection, a self-structured close-ended questionnaire was prepared based on a five-point Likert scale. The researcher visited the schools personally and collected the data. The researcher analyzed the data by putting the data into SPSS version 21 and organized in the form of frequencies and percentages. The researcher used chi-square for the testing of hypotheses. 
The study concluded that student misbehaviors affect the smoothness and effectiveness of teaching in the classroom and different strategies adopted by teachers for controlling the disruptive behavior of students in the classroom plays important role in improving student behavior and motivating them toward learning. Recommended measures for dealing with student misbehavior include arranging sessions and seminars for students to understand the roots of the problem. Interacting with the parents to understand if the student might be dealing with a stressful situation at home.  

Published in Proceedings of the SchoRes International Conference on Education

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Cooperative Learning Approaches Affecting Student Academic Performance at University Level

Adina Shahzad, Amjad Reba, Laila

Abstract

This suggests studying of students cooperative learning affecting their academic performance at university level. The study explores the effect of cooperative learning on academic performance of students. The study was limited to only Department of Education University of Okara. Questionnaire comprising of 4 questions and liker scale was used in questionnaire. The collected data was then tabulated and analyzed through percentage method. Finding of the study shows that majority of the respondents agreed that role of cooperative learning plays an important role in their academic achievement and help to communicate with others. A significant number of students respondent agreed that cooperative learning develops the sense of sharing knowledge. It is recommended that the department could put more emphasis on promoting cooperative learning because it has been shown to have numerous benefits, including improvements in achievement, performance, and class participation.

Published in Proceedings of the SchoRes International Conference on Education

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An Evaluation of Academic and Research Performance of Islamia College Peshawar for the Period 2008-2020

Sanaullah

Abstract

Islamia College Peshawar is a prestigious institution which has been spreading the light of knowledge for the last hundred years. It has provided quality education at all periods of time. The historic college was upgraded to the status of university in the year 2008 through an ordinance in the provincial assembly. The study was aimed to evaluate the academic and research performance of Islamia college Peshawar since 2008. The study was conducted within the premises of the institution. The faculty ICP were taken as population for the study. The results obtained show that Islamia College Peshawar has improved its performance with the passage of time, also being a university has made its place at 34 out of 73 universities in the country as reported by HEC ranking 2015.  In all periods of time Islamia College has had an excellent academic performance, at all levels. The College was upgraded to the status of university in the year 2008 through an ordinance in the provincial assembly. Since that Islamia College is struggling to improve its Research Performance along with its academic performance. Islamia College as public sector university had improved its academic and research performance with the passage of time since its establishment. The university has produced more than one thousand M.Phil. scholars and almost more than eighty Ph.Ds. in the last twelve years of its upgradation. Thus, this answers the research question formulated that, how does Islamia College Peshawar play an important role in promotion of research culture in the region? The data collected and results obtained shows that not only ICP is promoting research culture in the region but also motivating new generation towards academic and research. Although there are some issues in different areas but still the institution is proceeding towards development.

Published in Proceedings of the SchoRes International Conference on Education

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Impact of Corporal Punishment on the Academic Achievement of Students

Zubaida, Amjad Reba

Abstract

Corporal punishment is a physical punishment. It is a punishment in which physical force is intended to the cause some degree of pain or discomfort. It includes hitting the children with hand or with a cane, strip or with any other object, kicking, shaking, or throwing children, scratching, pinching, pulling their ears and their hairs etc. Thus it is the harmful form of punishment which discourages the children. The study was conducted in District Chitral. Data was collected from 100 respondents of primary school students using random sampling technique through proportional allocation method using interview schedule. The data was analyzed by descriptive statistics. It is an essential strategy for all form of violence in societies. As special strategy for ending of corporal punishment to make more visible through research interviewing children and teachers.it is a universal issue, so in most countries worldwide the initiative builds a global map of the prevalence and legality of corporal punishment. Also in the right of children article 19 it is stated that to protect children from all form of physical and other punishment.  The main purpose of the study is to know whether corporal punishment is given in school. The major objective is to know whether teachers know the philosophy of punishment and punishes the student accordingly. While discussions have been made on the basis of findings and results. For the said purpose questionnaire survey method was adopted and it was find out that majority of students and teachers are against the corporal punishment. The study suggests the teacher’s education, training and awareness regarding hold back ways of corporal punishment and affect alternative ways to correct students’ misbehavior is irresistible.

Published in Proceedings of the SchoRes International Conference on Education

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Relationship between Principal’s Instructional Supervision and Teacher’s Performance at Secondary Level in Peshawar

Safi Ullah, Um-e-Kulsoom, Mamriz Khan

Abstract

It is an established fact that the teachers are the catalysts for improving the quality of the teaching-learning process. This research is aimed at understanding the perception of teachers on the contribution of principal’s instructional supervision towards the performance of teachers. The principal is supposed to procure teaching materials to the schools for teachers to work with in order to improve classroom instruction. Principals may always be ready to assist the teachers and interact with them in a cordial manner. This study is aimed to explore the “Relationship between Principal’s Instructional Supervision and its Influence on Teacher's Performance at Secondary School Level in Peshawar”. For this purpose data was collected from 25 girls’ high & higher secondary schools. Eight teachers from each school were randomly selected, thus 200 teachers constituted the sample for the study. A questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondent teachers. The reliability test of the test items was carried out. The questionnaire was administered among 20 teachers other than the sample. Cronbach’s Alpha was carried out that has yielded results within the acceptable range. Data analysis was carried out by using statistical tools such as Descriptive Statistics, One-Sample t-test, Pearson Correlation-test, and Regression Analysis. The management may provide latest instructional technology to the educational institution for effective teaching-learning process. Finally, recommendations were put forward that could facilitate other researchers to carry out their research on the use of instructional technology at secondary school level.

Published in IOARP Journal of Innovations in Teaching, Learning, and Assessment

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Lateness and Absenteeism in Observed Classes: A Reflection on Practice

Asghar Hussain, Muhammad Adeel

Abstract

This paper focuses on the issues of creativity in teaching, motivation, and the ways in which various strategies can be implemented to promote inclusive teaching practice. Furthermore, through the use of these strategies, and, a selection of relevant learning theories, we will attempt to come to logical and reasoned conclusions on how best to tackle the critical incidents presented in this case study.

Published in IOARP Journal of Innovations in Teaching, Learning, and Assessment

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On the Importance of Communicating Behaviour Expectations in the First Session of a Class

Muhammad Adeel

Abstract

Classroom management has a critical impact on effective teaching and learning. Classroom disruptions are the pattern of repeated behaviour that significantly interrupts the teaching and learning process. It, therefore, becomes vital to handle these disruptions and the ability of a teacher to handle classroom discipline is given key priority in observation of teaching and learning conducted by the regulators. In this paper, we will focus on evaluating the importance of communicating behaviour expectations to the students in the very first session and its impact on effective teaching and learning. The analysis is based on the review of the literature, interviews, and a survey questionnaire completed by the teachers.

Published in IOARP Journal of Innovations in Teaching, Learning, and Assessment

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Strategies to Teach Child with Dyslexia in Classroom

Jin Mao, Colin Turcotte, Arjun Brar

Abstract

In this paper we aim at discussing various strategies adopted by teachers in order to help child with dyslexia cope up with class. The time spent in attaining the education plays a significant part of child’s development. For a teacher, aiding a dyslexic child is a wonderful as well as challenging task. Dyslexic students have learning differences due to which they can’t hold information for long and may not be able to grasp the information at all. It is important to understand that dyslexic learner neither lacks in intelligence nor willfulness, only constant support provided by mentors can help them in learning. However, with the guidance of professional tutors, well equipped and tested strategies- students are able to learn and achieve a lot.

Published in IOARP Journal of Innovations in Teaching, Learning, and Assessment

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Lightweight Secure and Scalable Key Sharing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

Munir Hussain, Khalid Khan

Abstract

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) technology is still immature and thus faces a variety of problems due to limited memory, CPU and battery power resources. WSNs are prone to active and passive attacks. While the former is capable of affecting minimal resources, the latter type of attack is difficult to launch but very powerful in terms of affecting critical resources. Most shared key security protocols used in WSNs are not scalable as they depend upon third party or KDC. Although in some situations this concept works well, besides reducing scalability, finding a trustworthy third party is also very difficult in KDC concept of key sharing. This paper gives a brief overview of WSNs, posed security threats to these networks and relevant security issues. This paper also brings in a novel key sharing model for traversing secret key in WSNs that does not depend on third party concept and hence it is a more scalable and secure.        

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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Analysis of Critical Aspects of M-commerce and Mobile Payment Systems 

Munir Hussain

Abstract

The fast spreading of wireless technology services are more focusing on businesses area rather than targeting customers. Even now, this advancement in the mobile technology continues to bang the international business market intensely, modern mobile technologies and their applications are more focusing the mobile business area. Today, the world of electronic transactions is switching from E-commerce to M-commerce. In order to solve critical issues in M-commerce it becomes vital to understand different concepts and technologies associated with M-commerce. The first part of this paper gives overview of M-commerce in terms of their characteristics, applications, and issues pertaining to it, including many critical issue such battery power consumption in M-commerce transactions. Battery is one of the most important and scarce resources in mobile devices thus to extend the mobile devices battery lifetime, it becomes important to save the battery resource as much as possible. The second part of this paper focuses on exploring various aspects of enabling mobile payment systems, mobile payment modes and characteristics and the payments system requirements.

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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Evaluation of the MPeersim – A Simulation Environment for Mobile Networks

M Adeel, L N Tokarchuk, M A Azam, S K A Khan

Abstract

MPeersim is a simulation environment for mobile and mobile P2P networks. It simulates different types of mobile nodes and communication technologies such as Bluetooth, MMS, and SMS. With a primary emphasis of evaluation of MPeersim in terms of simulation statistics, this paper will elaborate on various MPeersim functionalities in context of availability of generic, node, and network-specific simulation parameters, node and network-specific statistics available for various types of analyses, and on the capabilities of MPeersim in terms of presenting empirical data in different formats including graphs and visualisations for monitoring purposes. Providing a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between parameters and statistics will assist researchers in planning for developing simulation environments.

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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A Hybrid Model for Usability of Mobile Applications

Rabia Afzal Minhas, Khola Rafique, Ali Javed, Muhammad Awais Azam

Abstract

The success of mobile applications depends upon its usability. Of all the non-functional requirements, usability dimension is the foremost requirement for mobile applications. Usability of mobile applications should be high so that users can interact with them easily. There have been many models proposed that help developers for making mobile applications more usable. But they did not address all of the issues. In our paper, we propose a framework which is hybrid of multiple models like ISO, Moe, Voelle, Nielsen Zhang and Pacmad. In this paper, we also introduce a novel feature “Waste-app” for efficient utilization of memory. It automatically cleans up cache and the apps which are in use for a long time. Proposed methodology shows that inclusion of this new feature and the new hybrid model gives better results in usability aspects.

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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Technical Evaluation of the Functionality of Popular Mobile Payment Protocols 

Munir Hussain, Syed Usman Jamil

Abstract

Today, mobile commerce flexibility has totally changed businesses in the world due to easy mobile-based online bookings and payments. Its implementation is not limited to any single area but it can be utilized in all sorts of situations and organizations in various ways. It can be utilized in banking, electronic publication distribution, online sales, online payments for different utility bills and online booking of airlines etc. These kinds of online booking, buying and selling, and their payment services are available to anyone 24/7 in the world. When using these types of facilities, one needs to understand and study different types of characteristics of this new technology i.e., it is important to understand different modes of payments, various technologies using mobile payment system, and different M-commerce payment protocols. As we know that energy consumption is a critical issue in M-commerce, so it is important to reduce battery power consumption as much as possible. In this paper, we will explore some of the most popular mobile payment protocols step-by-step to fully understand their working environment.  

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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Collecting Statistical Parameters on Mobile Phones for Detection of Security Attacks and Mobile Malware

M Adeel, L N Tokarchuk, M A Azam, S K A Khan

Abstract

Communication between mobiles using technologies like Bluetooth, MMS, SMS, Mobile and Home Broadband can increases their susceptibility to mobile security threats. In the past few years, mobile malware has emerged as one of the major threats for modern-day mobile devices. Since the first malware outbreak in 2004, hundreds of mobile viruses, worms, Trojans and spyware and over thousands of their variants have been discovered. With such a large number of ever-evolving malware, it is challenging to develop an electronic system capable of detecting such malware. In this work, the statistical data generated as a consequence of interactions on mobile devices and the mechanism of recording this data against statistical parameters on mobile devices is discussed. We also provide a detailed taxonomy of the low and high-order statistical parameters, and discuss how these parameters (besides utilisation in other scenarios) can be affectively utilised in the detection of a variety of security attacks and malware types.

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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ICN Framework and Its Challenges for IOT Applications

Syed Usman Jamil, Khalid Khan

Abstract

The early internet user needs were coped by current internet architecture that was based on host-centric communication model. Now a day, usage as well as requirements of internet is changed however mostly internet users are interested to access large amount of data/information regardless of physical location.  This paradigm changes in the internet usage model along with mobility support, better security and pressing needs of users has invited researchers to consider radical changes in the internet architecture. By following this direction, we have reviewed many on-going efforts of researchers in which the future internet can be developed on the foundation of Information- Centric Networking. 
To sync billions of objects over the internet is promised by the internet of things (IOT). To deploy numerous individual IOT architectures, in domains of diverse nature, the ongoing trend is to deploy a common IOT platform, so that objects may be accessible and synchronized with applications across domains and organizations. To achieve this goal, limited proposals are developed to model unified host centric IOT infrastructure operate at upper layer of current host centric internet. Therefore, fundamental mismatch is evident in between the today’s host centric nature of internet and IOT system having information centric nature. We propose to develop common set of services and protocols to resolve this mismatch, which form a platform for IOT, on the basis of ICN paradigm, which may be named as ICN-IOT platform.  ICN-IOT merger is the ICN salient feature and therefore enables seamless scalability, mobility support and efficient service and content delivery. 
The main aim of these investigations is to find out the core functionalities of ICN architectures, overview of IOT functionalities and architectural requirements, and the review of ICN over IOT implementations and their advantages and challenges to sketch out the key unresolved challenges in this field of networking research.   

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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The Taxonomy of Behavioural Parameters on Mobile Devices

M Adeel, L N Tokarchuk, M A Azam, S K A Khan4

Abstract

Mobile malware has emerged as one of the major threats for modern day mobile networks. Since the first inception a decade ago, hundreds of types of mobile malware and their variants have been discovered. Interactions between mobile using technologies like Bluetooth, MMS, SMS, and mobile and home broadband, leave significant usage footprints on mobile devices. If acquired and processed, these footprints can be utilised for a variety of purposes including the detection of mobile malware. This work is aimed at introducing various behaviour parameters against which the footprints can be recorded, and the processing of these parameters to produce high-order parameters that can prove very effective in different types of device and network-specific analysis including detection of malware. It is important to state that this work is limited to presenting a comprehensive taxonomy of behaviour parameters only, and a discussion on the mechanism of utilising the behaviour parameters in analysis such as detection of malware is beyond the scope of this work.

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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Ad-hoc and Opportunistic Routing in Dynamic Scatternet Environment

S K A Khan, M Adeel, M A Azam

Abstract

In reality, mobile ad-hoc networks are highly unpredictable because any node can join or leave the network at any time, thus making reliable and effective communication a problem. This issue is addressed by introducing new breed of ad-hoc networking, known as opportunistic networks. Opportunistic networking is a concept that has evolved from mobile ad-hoc networking. In opportunistic networks nodes have no prior knowledge of routes to intended destinations. Any node in the network can be used as potential forwarder with the exception of taking information one step closer to intended destination. The forwarding decision is based on the information gathered from the source node or encountering node. The opportunistic forwarding can only be achieved if message forwarding is carried out in store and forward fashion. Although, opportunistic networks are more flexible than traditional MANETs, however, due to little insight of network, it poses distinct challenges such as intermittent connectivity, variable delays, short connection duration and dynamic topology. Addressing these challenges in opportunistic network is the basis for developing new and efficient protocols for information sharing. This paper presents a conceptual study for opportunistic networks to improve the overall message delivery at destinations while keeping the communication cost very low. Some assumptions are considered to improved directivity of message flow towards intended destinations. These assumptions exploit human social relationships analogies such as popularity and use of hybrid communication by applying opportunistic concepts on top of traditional ad-hoc routing such as AODV to gain maximum message directivity. The experiment results have shown that by combining traditional ad-hoc routing with opportunistic forwarding has not only improved directivity but as a result have achieved a great improvement in message delivery to intended destinations.

Published in IOARP Journal of Communication and Networks

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Impact of Leadership Style of Academic Administrators on Institutional Performance: A South Asian State University Case Study

M A Khalil, Y Raheel

Abstract

Existing research has focused on impact of leadership styles adopted by the academic administrators of the universities on factors such as faculty or student satisfaction.  These factors although have an indirect impact on the institutional performance in a state university system of developing countries, there is a growing need to study the correlation between leadership styles and institutional performance through quantitative indicators. 
Lack of performance regulatory mechanisms in higher education system in developing countries result in difficulties in performance evaluation based on standard performance indicators utilized for this purpose in developed countries. Based on the analysis of literature pertaining to evaluation of institutional performance, this paper identifies ever so important quantitative indicators for performance evaluation of the state universities in South Asia. 
Identifying the leadership style adopted by the academic administrators has always been an area of interest for the researchers as it affects institutions in different aspects. This paper identifies the leadership style of 4 academic administrators of the state university under discussion who have served the organisation in this role during the past 12 years though a survey using Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. After identifying the leadership styles of the administrators and selecting the quantitative parameters for performance evaluation, a correlation between the leadership style and institutional performance is investigated. This paper also provides a comparison of the performance of academic administrators with varying leadership styles on selected performance indicators.  

Published in Proceedings of the IOARP International Conference on Management, Leadership, and Entrepreneurship

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Strategic Planning in Small and Medium Enterprises: An Action Research Case Study focusing International Expansion

Y Raheel, M A Shahzad, R Ahmed

Abstract

This research is based on a case study of an SME planning to expand internationally and focuses on various important aspects of strategic planning. It helps formulate an effective strategic plan to drive a smooth and profitable international expansion. This research utilizes different qualitative and quantitative approaches as methodology. The findings of this research are not only beneficial for the concerned organization but also for other SMEs interested in international expansion. This paper provides a much needed insight into the operations of small and medium enterprises. It also highlights critical challenges an organization must be prepared to face during expansion. Internal organizational analysis focusing on issues such as product range, procurement, capital requirements and logistics while external analysis focusing on environment analysis, customer analysis, competitor analysis and advertisement strategy has been conducted.

Published in Proceedings of the IOARP International Conference on Management, Leadership, and Entrepreneurship

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Leadership Styles and their Impact on Faculty Job Satisfaction: Case Study of a Public Sector University in South Asia

Yousaf Raheel, Muhammad Arshad Khalil, Mohammad Amer Shahzad

Abstract

Research to-date has focused mainly on the impact of leadership styles of academic administrators of primary and secondary education institutions on faculty job satisfaction. There was however a growing need to investigate the correlation between leadership styles of academic administrators of higher education institutions i.e. universities particularly the public sector universities in South Asia on job satisfaction of faculty.
Through use of Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, this paper identifies the leadership styles of several academic administrators of the public sector university in question who have served on this role during past 12 years. An assessment of faculty job satisfaction was performed through Job Satisfaction Survey whereas a correlation between various styles of leadership adopted by the academic administrators of the university in question and their impact on faculty job satisfaction has been studied.

Published in Proceedings of the IOARP International Conference on Management, Leadership, and Entrepreneurship

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5G Technology: An Overview of Applications, Prospects, Challenges and Beyond

Maryam Fizza, Munam Ali Shah

Abstract

This paper provides a comprehensive overview of an emerging mobile wireless communication technology, i.e., 5G. We provide a concise view of the advancements which are currently being investigated to deploy 5G wireless technology in an effective and beneficial way. We aim to provide an easy and state of the art view of architectures, applications and challenges of the 5G technology. We group existing approaches and provide a critical overview of the underlying details adapted by the 5G technology.

Published in Proceedings of the IOARP International Conference on Communication and Networks

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